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What is Mania?

Mania is a state in which you feel extremely energetic, physically and mentally, that causes a significant impact on everyday life activities. Mania or a manic episode usually lasts for a week or more and is a severe form of hypomania. It is a symptom usually seen in people with a bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, and other such disorders where there are extremes of moods (feeling too high or too low). Mania often alternates with depression in such persons.

The prevalence of bipolar disorder in India was found to be 0.1% with a higher rate of occurrence in men. According to the National Mental Health Survey of India 2015-16, individuals in the age group 40-49 years were reported to have a higher incidence of bipolar disorder.

What are its main associated signs and symptoms?

While having a manic episode you will act or feel:

  • Extremely happy, unable to contain the excitement.
  • Highly energetic.
  • Talk and think very fast.
  • Not to sleep or eat.
  • Easily distracted.
  • Easily irritated and angered.
  • As if you possess special powers.
  • Have a lack of insight.
  • Have thoughts and ideas which do not make sense.

After an episode, you will hardly remember what had happened and feel embarrassed about your actions or words. You will also feel tired and sleepy.

What are the main causes?

The possible causes of mania are:

  • Bipolar disorder.
  • Stress.
  • Genetics.
  • Change in season.
  • Use of certain medicines or alcohol.
  • Abnormality in nerve functioning.
  • An end-stage manifestation of certain disease conditions.
  • Childbirth.
  • Events like loss of a loved one, divorce, violence, abuse, unemployment, financial difficulties.

How is it diagnosed and treated?

Your doctor (psychiatrist) can be a great help in treating mania. He/she will take your medical and personal history to rule out other conditions that can cause mania. History taking will also help to identify any recent tragic events and assess your mental health.

Anti-psychotics are usually prescribed in the management of mania. In the case of bipolar disorder-associated mania, mood stabilisers are given. Regular blood tests are required (or some mood stabiliser medicines) to prevent harmful side effects. Along with the medication, psychotherapy (which helps to identify patterns, encourages living in the present or solves the problems) and support from family and friends can be a great help.

  1. Medicines for Mania

References

  1. Prasad G. Rao. An overview of Indian research in bipolar mood disorder. Indian J Psychiatry. 2010 Jan; 52(Suppl1): S173–S177. PMID: 21836675.
  2. Suresh Bada Math and Ravindra Srinivasaraju. Indian Psychiatric epidemiological studies: Learning from the past. Indian J Psychiatry. 2010 Jan; 52(Suppl1): S95–S103. PMID: 21836725.
  3. Queensland Health. [Internet]. The State of Queensland. Caring for a person experiencing Mania.
  4. Mind. [Internet]. National Association for Mental Health. Hypomania and mania.
  5. Dailey MW, Saadabadi A. Mania. [Updated 2019 May 13]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-.
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