Myopia (Nearsightedness)

Dr. Ajay Mohan (AIIMS)MBBS

December 05, 2018

March 06, 2020


What is myopia?

Myopia (nearsightedness) is a condition in which you can see the near objects clearly, but the distant vision is blurred. You may find it difficult to view objects like a television screen, whiteboard, etc. Myopia can be classified as high myopia (severe myopia) and low myopia (mild myopia).

What are its main signs and symptoms?

The following signs and symptoms are observed in individuals with myopia:

What are its main causes?

The causes of myopia are as follows:

  • Inheritance: The tendency to develop myopia is inherited, but it also depends on how much stress you put on your eyes.
  • Visual stress: Work- or study-related stress like long working hours on a computer.
  • Diseases like diabetes: Varying blood sugar levels in diabetes affect the vision.
  • Environmental factors: The change in the environment affects your vision. For example, blurred distant vision only at night is known as night myopia.

How is it diagnosed and treated?

A comprehensive eye test is conducted by the eye care professional to diagnose myopia. The test includes testing of vision and physical examination of the eyes. It may also involve the use of eye drops for dilatation of the eyes to widen the pupils for ease of examination. This allows close and precise examination of the retina and optic nerve.

The most commonly used method for treating myopia includes corrective glasses or eye lenses. The other techniques that can be used are:

  • Refractive surgery like photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Refractive surgery is performed after the optic error is stable (i.e., your glasses number has remained stable for some time), usually when you are in your early 20s and your growth is complete. These surgeries improve the focus of the light on the retina by changing the shape of the cornea.
  • Corneal refractive therapy (Ortho-k): This is a non-surgical procedure in which you wear a rigid lens that reshapes your cornea.
  • Vision therapy: It is useful if you have stress-related myopia. Eye exercises are suggested to improve the ability to focus and, thus, regain clear distant vision.


  1. American Optometric Association. [Internet]: Missouri, United States; Myopia (Nearsightedness).
  2. National Eye Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Facts About Myopia
  3. American Academy of Ophthalmology [Internet] California, United States; Nearsightedness: What Is Myopia?
  4. National Health Portal [Internet] India; Myopia.
  5. Better health channel. Department of Health and Human Services [internet]. State government of Victoria; Short-sightedness.

Medicines for Myopia (Nearsightedness)

Medicines listed below are available for Myopia (Nearsightedness). Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.