myUpchar प्लस+ के साथ पुरे परिवार के हेल्थ खर्च पर भारी बचत

What is non-allergic rhinitis?

Non-allergic rhinitis is characterised by inflammation or swelling inside the nose, which is not caused by any allergic substances. The condition is caused by various non-allergic factors, such as smoke, changes in the atmospheric pressure, dry air, infections, etc. The mechanism of the condition does not involve an allergic response but is due to inflammation. 

What are its main signs and symptoms?

An individual with non-allergic rhinitis may present with the following symptoms:

  • Blocked nose
  • Irritation and discomfort in and around the nose
  • Excessive sneezing
  • Watery discharge from the nose
  • Reduced sense of smell and taste
  • Reduced appetite

Itching in the nose, throat, and eyes, is commonly seen in allergic rhinitis. However, these symptoms rarely manifest in people with non-allergic rhinitis.

What are the main causes?

Although the exact cause of the condition remains unclear, various non-allergic factors contribute to the development of non-allergic rhinitis. These factors include:

  • Air pollution
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Spicy food
  • Some drugs like ibuprofen and aspirin
  • Dry atmosphere
  • Strong odours like the odour of perfume and bleaching agents
  • Bacterial and viral infections

How is it diagnosed and treated?

The physician may use one or more of the following diagnostic measures to identify the condition:

  • Physical examination.
  • Skin tests to identify the allergen causing the condition. This helps in ruling out allergic rhinitis.
  • Blood test to detect the levels of immunoglobulin E, which is an antibody produced by the immune system in response to an allergy. A complete blood count (CBC) will help in determining the eosinophil count (a type of white blood cell) in the blood, which is another indicator of allergy. Therefore, a blood test will aid in ruling out allergic reactions. 

Treatment of non-allergic rhinitis involves avoiding the cause and relieving the symptoms of the condition.

  • If medication is the cause, the doctor may prescribe some alternative drug.
  • If excessive use of nasal decongestant has led to the condition, stop using it.
  • Nasal irrigation to clean the nose with saline solution.
  • Corticosteroid, decongestants, anticholinergic, or antihistaminic nasal sprays are used to clear the blocked nose.​
  1. Medicines for Nonallergic Rhinitis

Medicines for Nonallergic Rhinitis

Medicines listed below are available for Nonallergic Rhinitis. Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.

Medicine NamePack SizePrice (Rs.)
AvamysAvamys 0.05% Nasal Spray304.0
EnnhaleEnnhale 0.055% Nasal Spray302.0
FlohaleFlohale 0.5 Mg Respules405.0
Flomist AzFlomist Az 50 Mcg Nasal Spray218.0
FlomistFlomist 0.5 Mg Nasal Spray240.0
FluticortFluticort 0.5 Mg Respules157.0
Flutiflo FtFlutiflo Ft 27.5 Mcg Nasal Spray289.0
OdnaseOdnase Nasal Spray294.0
FloeaseFloease 125 Mcg Inhaler245.0
Otrivin COtrivin C 0.05% Nasal Spray64.0
FluolFluol 0.025% Mg/1% Mg Cream54.86
AlerfloAlerflo 27.5 Mcg Nasal Spray295.0
DayflutDayflut 0.05% Cream103.12
Ezicas FEzicas F 0.055% Nasal Spray287.0
FlatFlat 0.05% Cream55.0
FlixonaseFlixonase 0.05% Nasal Spray421.1
FluteFlute 0.05% Cream37.89
FluticoneFluticone 50 Mcg Nasal Spray251.0
Fluticone FtFluticone Ft 27.5 Mcg Nasal Spray294.0
FlutivateFlutivate 0.05% W/W Cream110.5
FreeairFreeair 0.055% Nasal Spray270.0
FuramistFuramist 27.5 Mcg Nasal Spray319.0
LuticaLutica Cream94.0
LutidermLutiderm Cream77.0
RhinofitRhinofit 0.05% W/V Nasal Spray170.0
SinoSino Nasal Spray180.0
UltisoneUltisone 0.05% Cream79.68
ZoflutZoflut 0.05% Lotion59.16
CazonCazon Cream93.0
EfnaseEfnase 0.05% Nasal Spray237.0
EzicasEzicas 50 Mcg Nasal Spray249.0
FivasaFivasa 27 Mcg Nasal Spray240.0
FlorespFloresp 27.5 Mcg Nasal Spray295.0
FlublockFlublock 27.5 Mcg Nasal Spray287.0
FluticosoneFluticosone Nasal Spray220.26
FlutifloFlutiflo 50 Mcg Spray202.0
FlutirestFlutirest 27.5 Mcg Nasal Spray289.87
Flutivate EFlutivate E Cream95.5
FurasprayFuraspray 27.5 Mcg Nasal Spray240.0
Lutica (Ranbaxy)Lutica (Ranbaxy) 0.05% Lotion167.5
NasocomNasocom Nasal Spray 50 Mg238.0
NazobicNazobic Nasal Spray290.0
NezafloNezaflo 0.05% W/W Nasal Spray203.0
BudateBudate 0.5 Mg/2 Ml Respules567.0
BudecortBudecort 0.5 Mg Respules207.5
Budenase AqBudenase Aq 100 Mcg Nasal Spray195.5
BudezBudez Cr 3 Mg Capsule155.0
BunaseBunase 0.5 Mg Respules104.25
Derinide AqDerinide Aq 64 Mcg Nasal Spray274.0
DerinideDerinide 100 Mg Respicap100.0
PulmicortPulmicort 0.5 Mg Respules22.55
RhinocortRhinocort 64 Mcg Aquanase285.43
AlvonideAlvonide 0.5 Mg Respules27.93
Budesonide 0.5 Mg/MlBudesonide 0.5 Mg/Ml Respules11.02
BudventBudvent Easecaps 100 Mcg Capsule45.12
BunideBunide Cr 3 Mg Capsule317.31
Budeflam AqBudeflam Aq Aquanase171.31
BaycortBaycort 2% Cream24.06
Beclo 17 21Beclo 17 21 0.25% Lotion46.4
Beclo CBeclo C Lotion47.7
BeclodermBecloderm 0.025% Cream20.0
BetadermBetaderm 0.05% Cream60.0
DermaspanDermaspan 0.025%/1%/0.1% Cream32.72
GalvateGalvate 0.025% Lotion114.0
Propynate NfPropynate Nf 0.025% W/W Cream155.0
Rovate LotionRovate 0.05% W/V Lotion13.13
ZovateZovate 0.03% Ointment20.92
BetnitekBetnitek Lotion50.0
DiprobecDiprobec 0.025% Cream46.0
DipromildDipromild 0.0125% Cream30.75
GebicGebic Cream34.72
PilovatePilovate Cream20.62
BeclateBeclate 200 Mcg Inhaler340.0
BecorideBecoride 100 Mcg Inhaler282.96
MedivenMediven Cream36.0
RhinaseRhinase 0.025% Nasal Drops85.0
ZydipZydip 0.05% W/W Lotion135.0
AcdermAcderm 0.025%/1%/0.1% Cream36.87
Beclolab CgBeclolab Cg 0.25%/0.1%/1% Cream8.75
Beclotis CgBeclotis Cg 0.025%/1%/0.1% Cream12.5
Biomet CBiomet C 0.025%/1%/0.1% Cream29.25
Biomet CgBiomet Cg 0.025%/1%/0.1% Ointment28.5
Canditas BgnCanditas Bgn 0.1% Cream8.75
Clomax BgClomax Bg 0.25%/0.1%/1% Cream38.5
Decand BgDecand Bg 0.025%/1%/0.1% Cream11.2
Dewderm (Dew Drops Lab)Dewderm Ointment28.75
Fungi BcFungi Bc Drop34.28
Lamonte BLamonte B 0.025%/1%/0.1% Cream23.47
Lamonte BgLamonte Bg 0.025%/1%/0.1% Cream35.16
Lotril BgLotril Bg Cream60.5
Maxiderm RfMaxiderm Rf 0.025%/1%/0.1% Cream20.18
MydermMyderm 0.025%/1%/0.1% Ointment5.93
Refur PlusRefur Plus Cream28.87
SigmadermSigmaderm 0.025%/1%/0.1% Cream55.07
Translipo TripleTranslipo Triple 0.025%/1%/0.1% Cream47.02
Triben PlusTriben Plus Cream49.0
ZydermZyderm 0.025%/1%/0.1% Ointment9.53
Betsonir CgBetsonir Cg Cream2.5
Cloz GbCloz Gb 0.5%W/W/0.10%W/W/1%W/W Cream36.0
DiprodermDiproderm 0.025%W/W/0.1%W/W/1%W/W Cream33.65
QtecQtec 0.025%/1%/0.1% Ointment5.93
Qtec PlusQtec Plus Ointment9.0
SuperdermSuperderm 0.25%/0.1%/1% Cream42.35
AerocortAerocort 100 Mcg/50 Mcg Inhaler170.0
Aerocort ForteAerocort Forte 200 Mcg/200 Mcg Rotacap65.0
Aerocort HfaAerocort Hfa 100 Mcg/50 Mcg Inhaler170.0
Derisone LDerisone L Forte Respicap70.0
Durabec Breath InhalerDurabec Breath Inhaler111.0
VentorideVentoride 100 Mcg/50 Mg Inhaler104.2
Vent Plus Easecaps CapsuleVent Plus Easecaps 200 Mcg/100 Mcg Capsule30.12
Aerotide Forte DisketteAerotide Forte 400 Mcg/200 Mcg Diskette14.57
AerotideAerotide 200 Mcg/100 Mcg Inhaler59.2
Aerovent InhalerAerovent Inhaler158.75
Derisone RespicapDerisone 200 Mcg/100 Mcg Respicap19.0
Oflox DOflox D 0.3%W/V/0.1%W/V Eye Drop13.0
Airtec FbAirtec Fb 6 Mcg/100 Mcg Capsule137.0
BudamateBudamate 400 Inhaler345.0
BudetrolBudetrol 12 Mcg/200 Mcg Inhaler275.94
Combihale FbCombihale Fb 6 Mcg/200 Mcg Inhaler275.94
ForacortForacort 100 Rotacap122.0
FormonideFormonide 20 Mcg/0.5 Mg Respules280.0
SymbicortSymbicort 4.5 Mcg/160 Mcg Turbuhaler550.0
Vent EcVent Ec Capsule17.36
Vent FbVent Fb 6 Mcg/100 Mcg Capsule102.53
Budamate ForteBudamate Forte 12 Mcg/400 Mcg Transcaps241.0
Budetrol ForteBudetrol Forte 12 Mcg/400 Mcg Capsule220.0
Digihaler FbDigihaler Fb 6 Mcg/200 Mcg Inhaler355.0
Fomtide NfFomtide Nf 12 Mcg/100 Mcg Inhaler219.24
FomtideFomtide 12 Mcg/200 Mcg Diskette325.0
Peakhale FbPeakhale Fb 6 Mcg/100 Mcg Inhaler214.0
Quikhale FbQuikhale Fb 6 Mcg/200 Mcg Inhaler304.0
SymbivaSymbiva 100 Mcg Capsule183.33
AnovateAnovate Cream83.5
Pilo GoPilo Go Cream55.0
Proctosedyl BdProctosedyl Bd Cream58.85
ProctosedylProctosedyl Ointment53.6
AudoticAudotic Ear Drops58.78
Obpex Eye DropsObpex Eye Drops29.0
OtiflamOtiflam Ear Drops51.6
OtorestOtorest Ear Drop52.0
Otras OtOtras Ot Drops42.0
Bestoflox ClBestoflox Cl Ear Drops33.93
Clodibiotic Ear DropClodibiotic Ear Drop48.0
DrepDrep Ear Drop46.55
Myclin OMyclin O Ear Drops30.5
AzefloAzeflo 50 Mcg/140 Mcg Spray238.0
AzenateAzenate 357 Mcg/1 Mcg Nasal Spray225.0
DuonaseDuonase 50 Mcg/140 Mcg Nasal Spray290.0
DuosprayDuospray 0.05%/0.14% Nasal Spray212.0
Floresp AzFloresp Az 50 Mcg/140 Mcg Nasal Spray252.0
Furamist AzFuramist Az Nasal Spray359.0
Combinase FtCombinase Ft Nasal Spray299.0
Ezicas AzEzicas Az 140 Mcg/50 Mcg Nasal Spray267.0
Fivasa AzFivasa Az 27.5 Mcg/140 Mcg Nasal Spray270.0
Flublock AzFlublock Az 50 Mcg/140 Mcg Nasal Spray245.71
Furamost AzFuramost Az Nasal Spray359.0
Nasocom AzNasocom Az Nasal Spray284.0
NezalastNezalast 50 Mcg/140 Mcg Nasal Spray240.0
SarnaseSarnase 50 Mcg/140 Mcg Nasal Spray181.72
BeclocidBeclocid Lotion37.5
CanditopCanditop 0.025%/1% Cream26.05
Canison BCanison B Cream44.0
Clofung GmClofung Gm Ointment18.82
Clofung GClofung G Ointment36.25
ClogentClogent Ointment40.0
Clomax BClomax B 0.025%W/W/1%W/W Cream47.0
Clona BClona B Ointment30.0
Fluol BFluol B 0.025% W/W/1% W/W Cream54.86
Fungnil BFungnil B 0.025%W/V/1%W/V Cream13.75
Lotril BLotril B Cream58.05
Moncid BMoncid B 0.025%W/V/1%W/V Solution114.0
Nifugal BNifugal B 0.025%/1% Ointment21.5
Ocan BOcan B Cream18.58
Strodent MouthStrodent Mouth Paint46.5
Surfaz BSurfaz B Cream57.76
Topcan BTopcan B Cream48.21
Topcan BgTopcan Bg Cream50.0
Trim BTrim B 0.025%W/W/1%W/W Cream32.0
Vg Can BVg Can B Cream53.0
Abzorb BAbzorb B Cream60.0
BecloromBeclorom Cream38.0
Candex BCandex B Lotion31.3
Candy BCandy B 0.025%/1% Cream34.5
Clen BClen B Cream18.08
Cloben 15Cloben 15 Cream36.1
Clozol B (Biochem)Clozol B Ointment31.0
DefunginDefungin Cream28.57
Exelvate BExelvate B Cream42.86
ExfungExfung 0.025%/1% Cream34.68
Fulcin (Kim Lab)Fulcin Drops35.0
Itchgo BItchgo B Cream10.0
Mazoderm BMazoderm B Cream27.66
Monila PlusMonila Plus 0.025%W/W/1%W/W Cream49.0
Stoma CareStoma Care Liquid77.0
Topiclo BTopiclo B 0.025%/1% Ointment34.48
ZedermZederm Cream36.0
Beclolab NBeclolab N 0.025%/0.5% Cream13.12
Beclomark NBeclomark N 0.025%/0.1% Cream20.5
Biomet NBiomet N 0.025%/0.5% Cream38.5
Beclocort NBeclocort N 0.025%/0.5% Cream14.9
Beclosone NBeclosone N 0.025%/0.5% Cream17.85
Beclotas NBeclotas N Ointment27.0
Beclotec NBeclotec N Ointment9.37
Becmet NBecmet N Cream28.5
Betabiotic PlusBetabiotic Plus Drops26.0
Betawok NBetawok N Cream12.5
Betsonir NBetsonir N Cream15.75
Daily MDaily M Tablet50.0
Beclomethasone 0.025% + Clotrimazole 1% + Gentamycin 0.1% CreamBeclomethasone 0.025% + Clotrimazole 1% + Gentamycin 0.1% Cream10.95
CandidermaCandiderma Cream42.8
Clowin GmClowin Gm Cream9.42
CuticareCuticare Cream55.0
DiproliteDiprolite Cream11.25
Siloderm MixiSiloderm Mixi Cream49.25
BeclosalBeclosal 0.025%/3% Cream29.0
Ephytol SEphytol S 0.025%W/W/3%W/W Ointment51.22
Zovate SZovate S 0.025%W/W/3%W/W Cream35.85
BiosalicBiosalic Ointment45.0
BencreamBencream Cream58.59
CandivateCandivate 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream15.0
Canison BnCanison Bn Cream51.0
Clomax BnClomax Bn 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream53.0
Clomazole SnClomazole Sn 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream65.0
Cnb (Als)Cnb 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream25.0
DermikemDermikem 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream9.37
InfadermInfaderm Cream41.0
Naderm RfNaderm Rf 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream21.15
OndermOnderm 0.025%W/W/0.5%W/W/1%W/W Ointment39.0
OtobioticOtobiotic 0.025%/0.5%/1% Ear Drop53.0
Qualis RfQualis Rf 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream32.0
Ring OutRing Out 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream20.0
Trizole BTrizole B Cream70.0
ZefacortZefacort 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream18.0
ArdermaArderma 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream17.46
Becsone NBecsone N Cream12.81
Burnol PrickdermBurnol Prickderm Cream23.56
Candex BgCandex Bg 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream33.0
CutigardCutigard 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream30.2
Czson NbCzson Nb Cream27.0
DermitrustDermitrust Cream7.35
FungihealFungiheal Cream33.22
Fungitop RfFungitop Rf Cream13.12
GerdermGerderm Cream8.75
GetridGetrid 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream36.0
Mazoderm BnMazoderm Bn Cream15.0
MegadermMegaderm Cream7.5
Nb ClozNb Cloz 0.025%/0.5%/1% Cream32.8
PerisanPerisan Cream57.9
ZenodermZenoderm Ointment12.5
Betapro CBetapro C Lotion36.91
Candid BCandid B Cream98.0
Canesten SCanesten S Cream63.4
Rizole BRizole B Cream48.8
Triben BTriben B Cream73.0
Zydip CZydip C 0.025% W/V/1% W/V Cream99.0
Beczol CreamBeczol Cream65.0
Cantop BCantop B Cream9.68
Clocip BClocip B Cream40.0
Czson BCzson B Cream40.0
Kivzole BKivzole B Cream86.58
ObedermObederm Cream47.13
BudesalBudesal 0.5 Mg/1.25 Mg Respules300.0
CandibioticCandibiotic Ear Drop65.0
Orecure PlusOrecure Plus Ear Drops59.7
AlbioticAlbiotic Ear Drop52.0
GlybioticGlybiotic Ear Drop45.0
MycoticMycotic Ear Drop48.0
OtidropOtidrop Ear Drops25.33
OtocinOtocin Ear Drop39.6
Combihale FfCombihale Ff 6 Mcg/125 Mcg Inhaler425.0
FormosoneFormosone 25 Mg/0.6 Mg Novocart365.72
MaxifloMaxiflo 6 Mcg/100 Mcg Rotacap167.0
Airtec FfAirtec Ff 6 Mcg/125 Mcg Inhaler320.0
AvessaAvessa 6 Mcg/250 Mcg Capsule231.0
CombisureCombisure 6 Mcg/125 Mcg Inhaler330.2
Fluticort FFluticort F 6 Mcg/250 Mcg Rotacap227.0
FormofloFormoflo 6 Mcg/250 Mcg Transcaps259.5
FullhaleFullhale 6 Mcg/125 Mcg Inhaler305.0
Quikhale FfQuikhale Ff 6 Mcg/250 Mcg Capsule238.0
CombitideCombitide 25 Mcg/125 Mcg Inhaler324.0
EsifloEsiflo 100 Transcaps130.5
FlutrolFlutrol 25 Mcg/125 Mcg Inhaler450.0
Seretide AccuhalerSeretide Accuhaler 50 Mcg/100 Mcg Inhaler450.0
Seretide EvohalerSeretide Evohaler 25 Mcg/100 Mcg Inhaler358.6
SeroflamSeroflam 25 Mcg/125 Mcg Tablet36.08
SerofloSeroflo 25 Mcg/125 Mcg Autohaler864.0
Airtec SfAirtec Sf 25 Mcg/125 Mcg Inhaler350.0
Combitide StarhalerCombitide Starhaler 25 Mcg/125 Mcg Inhaler573.8
Combiwave SfCombiwave Sf 125 Mcg/25 Mcg Inhaler298.0
Digihaler SfDigihaler Sf 125 Inhaler350.0
Esiflo HfaEsiflo Hfa 25 Mcg/125 Mcg Transhaler357.0
FluticureFluticure 50 Mcg/250 Mcg Respicap230.28
ForairForair 25 Mcg/125 Mcg Inhaler348.0
Peakhale SfPeakhale Sf 25 Mcg/125 Mcg Inhaler438.0
Quikhale SfQuikhale Sf 25 Mcg/250 Mcg Inhaler455.0
Rheoran SfRheoran Sf 50 Mcg/250 Mcg Octacap220.0
Vent SfVent Sf 50 Mcg/500 Mcg Capsule236.11
DbioticDbiotic Eye Drops43.31
ErcobErcob 0.3%/0.025%/1% Ear Drop44.7
Mix BioticMix Biotic Drop50.0
OtichekOtichek 0.3%/0.025%/% Eye Drop46.44
OtifloxOtiflox 0.3%/0.025%/1% Ear Drop44.44
Otobiotic PlusOtobiotic Plus 0.3%/0.025%/1% Drop56.0
Candid OCandid O Ear Drop62.0
OtinexOtinex Ear Drops26.2
Otolux OOtolux O Ear Drop41.37
OtonormOtonorm Ear Drop50.0
EclospanEclospan 0.025%/2%/0.5% Cream44.5
MegaspanMegaspan Cream22.9
NovacorNovacor Cream30.0
ValbetValbet Cream21.0
Fexit BFexit B 0.025%/2% Cream61.53
Fudic BnfFudic Bnf 0.025% W/W/2% W/W Cream135.0
Fusiate BFusiate B 0.25 Mg/20 Mg Cream95.0
Fusikab BFusikab B 0.025%/2% Cream64.76
Fuson BFuson B 0.25 Mg/20 Mg Cream45.0
Niogenta FNiogenta F 0.025% W/W/2% W/W Cream169.0
FusiateFusiate Cream115.0
Fusi BFusi B Cream77.15
FlutibactFlutibact 0.005% W/W/2% W/W Ointment98.9
Fm DermaFm Derma 0.005% W/W/2% W/W Ointment150.0
CormuzikCormuzik Ointment187.0
FluticinFluticin Ointment96.65
Fusee BFusee B 0.025%W/W/2%W/W Cream185.0
Fusidil BFusidil B Cream68.0
Fusigen DpFusigen Dp Cream64.3
Fuseal BFuseal B Cream68.4
Gentalene PlusGentalene Plus Cream76.0
Nuforce GmNuforce Gm 0.025% W/W/1% W/W/0.5% W/W Cream33.0
Quadriderm RfQuadriderm Rf Cream97.0
Toprap NcToprap Nc Cream28.85
TrijekTrijek Cream40.0
TrinilTrinil 0.025%/1%/0.5% Lotion43.8
BageeBagee Cream39.8
Bestopic NBestopic N Cream45.0
Candiderma PlusCandiderma Plus Cream72.0
Cloben GCloben G Cream84.0
Dermolin GmDermolin Gm Cream34.9
Fungid NcFungid Nc Cream38.67
Gentalene C PlusGentalene C Plus Cream66.18
MegaseptMegasept Ointment59.0
SkintopSkintop Cream58.0
Sriderm CreamSriderm Cream22.0
TotaldermTotalderm Cream37.0
KetonateKetonate 0.03%/22% Cream36.5
Lutica MLutica M Ointment72.11
Mupifin FMupifin F Ointment97.0
Mupricon FmMupricon Fm Ointment76.92
Mycoseal FtMycoseal Ft 0.05% W/W/1% W/W Cream67.36
Terfin FTerfin F Lotion80.0
OcoticOcotic Drops29.0
OticlorOticlor Eye Drops21.0
OtigardOtigard Ear Drops19.42
OtilanOtilan Ear Drop54.0
ClocibioticClocibiotic Ear Drops33.66
ClodideClodide Ear Drops19.96
OtiscotOtiscot 5%/1%/0.025% Drop24.57
Oflo BmOflo Bm Ointment20.5
Ofloxamac DOfloxamac D 0.3%W/V/0.1%W/V/0.02%W/V Eye Drop9.45
Onabet BOnabet B 0.025% W/W/2% W/W Cream129.0
Sertacide BSertacide B Cream119.0
PentadermPentaderm Cream32.0
TricozolTricozol Ear Drop50.5
PilcarePilcare Cream29.0

Do you or anyone in your family have this disease? Please do a survey and help others

सम्बंधित लेख

और पढ़ें ...