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What is xerophthalmia?

Xerophthalmia, also known as dry eye syndrome, is a condition that typically characterises an early deficiency of vitamin A. However, it is essential to understand that not all individuals with vitamin A deficiency will manifest symptoms of xerophthalmia. Some diseases, medications and a few other factors may also lead to xerophthalmia. In xerophthalmia, the cornea, which is the outermost layer of the eye, becomes dry and scaly. The affected eye becomes more prone to infection. It can occur in individuals of all age groups.

What are its main signs and symptoms?

The signs and symptoms listed below may be associated with xerophthalmia:

What are the main causes?

The two vitamin A-related causes of xerophthalmia include:

  • Xerophthalmia due to less intake of vitamin A in the diet, which is commonly observed in developing countries
  • Xerophthalmia unrelated to the intake of vitamin A in the diet, but due to improper breakdown and storage of vitamin A

The other causes of xerophthalmia are:

How is it diagnosed and treated?

The doctor makes the diagnosis in the following manner:

  • Detailed medical history of the individual
  • Examination of the eye
  • Blood tests to check for deficiency of vitamin A

The doctor may recommend the following to treat xerophthalmia:

  • Vitamin A supplementation to normalise the level of vitamin A in the body
  • Prescription eye drops to prevent drying out of the eye
  • Artificial tears as lubricants
  • Warm compresses
  • Eyelid massage

The following steps ensure the appropriate management of xerophthalmia:

  • Increasing the dietary intake of vitamin A
  • Fortification of food with vitamin A
  • Dietary supplementation with vitamin A.
  1. Medicines for Xerophthalmia

Medicines for Xerophthalmia

Medicines listed below are available for Xerophthalmia. Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.

Medicine NamePack SizePrice (Rs.)
HyprosolHyprosol 0.490 W/V/2 W/V Prefilled Syringe110.0
RayflurRayflur Eye Drops49.5
TakflurTakflur 0.03%W/V/0.25%W/V/0.001%W/V Eye Drop60.0
PenfenPenfen Eye Drop59.0
RediffRediff 0.25 W/V/0.056 W/V Eye Drops44.5
EyemistEyemist 0.3% Eye Drop144.0
GentealGenteal 0.3% Eye Drop153.0
IntaviscIntavisc 2% Eye Drop70.0
IrimistIrimist 0.3% Eye Drop88.0
MoisolMoisol 0.7% Eye Drop30.0
Tears Naturale ForteTears Naturale Forte Eye Drop172.0
Tears Naturale IiTears Naturale Ii Eye Drop163.0
ViscometViscomet 2% Eye Drop76.0
Viscomet PfViscomet Pf 20 Mg/Ml Prefilled Syringe73.0
AppaviscAppavisc 2%W/V Injection50.0
AraAra Eye Drop175.0
At PlusAt Plus 0.3% Eye Drop33.0
CarboCarbo Gel89.0
Comoist (Klar Sehen)Comoist Eye Drops102.0
HymeloseHymelose 2% Prefilled Syringe122.0
Hymelose Intra OcularHymelose Intra Ocular Liquid66.0
Hyprosol(Snw)Hyprosol 2% Injection56.0
Intavisc Mv PpfIntavisc Mv Ppf 2% Injection189.0
Intavisc PpfIntavisc Ppf 2% W/V Injection92.0

Do you or anyone in your family have this disease? Please do a survey and help others


  1. Feroze KB, Kaufman EJ. Xerophthalmia. [Updated 2019 Jan 13]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-.
  2. National Health Portal [Internet] India; Xerophthalmia
  3. American Academy of Ophthalmology [internet] California, United States; Vitamin A Deficiency - Asia Pacific.
  4. American Academy of Ophthalmology [internet] California, United States; Dry Eye Diagnosis and Treatment.
  5. World Health Organization [Internet]. Geneva (SUI): World Health Organization; Xerophthalmia and night blindness for the assessment of clinical vitamin A deficiency in individuals and populations.
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