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What is Anal Cancer?

Anal cancer is a rare malignancy of the gastrointestinal system. It accounts for a small percentage (1.5%) of the gastrointestinal cancers, but there is evidence of a steady increase in its occurrence. Anal cancer is cancer of the anus or the anal canal, the end portion of the rectum.

What are the main signs and symptoms of Anal Cancer?

  • Common signs and symptoms:
    • Pain and bleeding from the anus.
    • Presence of fistulas (abnormal narrow tunnel-shaped connection between the anal canal and the skin of the hip) or leucoplakia (white, thick, non-scrapable patches).
    • Swollen lymph nodes that are easily detected during a physical examination.
    • Cancer of the anal margins manifests with a characteristic ulcer showing everted, indurated (with a firm base) and raised borders.
  • Uncommon signs and symptoms:
    • Presence of a mass in the anal region.
    • Pruritus or itching along with a discharge.
    • Impaired function of the muscular ring (sphincter) that controls stool passage, leading to anal incontinence.
    • Enlargement of the liver.
    • Distant spread of primary anal cancer.

What are the main causes of Anal Cancer?

  • Most common cause
    The human papillomavirus infection, a sexually transmitted disease, shows increased association with anal cancers.
  • Risk factors include:
    • Weak immunity
    • Age and gender
      It is more common among elderly people and women.
    • Medical conditions
    • Lifestyle
      • Smoking.
      • Engaging in intercourse with multiple partners.
      • Homosexuality, especially among males.

How is Anal Cancer diagnosed and treated?

  • Diagnosis
    Anal cancer cannot be diagnosed solely on the basis of clinical presentation and symptoms. Along with a physical examination under anaesthesia for the assessment of a tumour, doctors advise the following tests for detection of anal cancer:
    • Endo-anal ultrasound imaging
    • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    • Computed tomography (CT) scan/positron emission tomography (PET) scan
  • Treatment
    • The primary treatment for anal cancer, in most cases, is radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. For older and weak patients, it is necessary to modify the chemotherapy and antibiotic prophylaxis.
    • The disadvantage of radiotherapy lies in radionecrosis (tissue damage or death due to radiation), because of which surgery becomes a safer line of treatment. Abdominoperineal excision (removal of the anus, a part of the colon and rectum) for aggressive cancers or those with high rates of recurrence and local excision for small tumours has become the standard treatment for anal cancers.
    • Management of inguinal lymph nodes involves radiation therapy. In cases of relapse or failure of radiation therapy, surgical resection of the lymph nodes is required.
    • Recurrent anal cancers require abdominoperineal resection combined with a colostomy (removal of the colon).
    • Intra-operative radiotherapy and brachytherapy (inserting radioactive implants) lower the chances of recurrence of anal cancer post-treatment.
    • Other treatment options include photodynamic (by using the light of a particular wavelength) therapy and immunotherapy.
  1. Medicines for Anal Cancer
  2. Doctors for Anal Cancer
Dr. Arabinda Roy

Dr. Arabinda Roy

ऑन्कोलॉजी

Dr. C. Arun Hensley

Dr. C. Arun Hensley

ऑन्कोलॉजी

Dr. Sanket Shah

Dr. Sanket Shah

ऑन्कोलॉजी

Medicines for Anal Cancer

Medicines listed below are available for Anal Cancer. Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.

Medicine NamePack SizePrice (Rs.)
CacitCacit 500 Mg Tablet1668.86
CapeciteCapecite 500 Mg Tablet1037.25
CapegardCapegard 500 Mg Tablet600.0
CapetaCapeta 500 Mg Tablet1530.0
CapezamCapezam 500 Mg Tablet1419.05
CapiibineCapiibine 500 Mg Tablet2859.05
CapsyCapsy 500 Mg Tablet1447.62
CaxetaCaxeta 500 Mg Tablet582.0
XelodaXeloda 500 Mg Tablet2002.0
ZocitabZocitab 500 Mg Tablet1542.4
AtubriAtubri 500 Mg Tablet1730.77
CapcelCapcel 500 Mg Tablet1409.52
CapehopeCapehope 500 Mg Tablet937.5
CapeteroCapetero 500 Mg Tablet1220.0
CapnatCapnat 500 Mg Tablet1800.0
CaptabinCaptabin 500 Mg Tablet1562.5
GlancapGlancap 500 Mg Tablet1299.0
Naprocap 500 Mg TabletNaprocap 500 Mg Tablet1500.0
XabineXabine 500 Mg Tablet1609.5
XelocelXelocel 500 Mg Tablet1480.0
XortibXortib 150 Mg Tablet780.0
ZenociteZenocite 500 Mg Tablet1047.22
CapcitaCapcita 500 Mg Tablet81.25
CapecadCapecad 500 Mg Tablet952.37
CapecitaperCapecitaper 500 Mg Tablet1714.38
CapostatCapostat 500 Mg Tablet875.0
CapxcelCapxcel 500 Mg Tablet1536.0
Citabin504 Gateway Time Out Citabin 500 Mg Tablet1695.0
DistamineDistamine 500 Mg Tablet593.75
XecapXecap 500 Mg Tablet1250.0
XphilXphil 300 Mcg Injection2142.8
5 Flucel5 Flucel 250 Mg Injection12.0
ChemofluraChemoflura 250 Mg Injection10.4
FivocilFivocil 250 Mg Injection11.7
FivofluFivoflu 250 Mg Injection15.0
FlocilFlocil 250 Mg Injection29.03
FloracFlorac 250 Mg Injection11.07
FluoncoFluonco 250 Mg Injection69.0
FluracilFluracil 250 Mg Injection12.04
KucilKucil 250 Mg Injection12.5
OncoflourOncoflour 250 Mg Injection13.5
FlonidaFlonida 1% W/W Cream78.0
FluoFluo Cream120.21
Avastin (Psycormedies)Avastin Injection37373.8
Avastin (Roche)Avastin 100 Mg Injection29423.0

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