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What are dental caries (cavity)?

A dental or tooth cavity is a hollow space formed in the tooth due to alternate demineralisation and remineralisation of the tooth structure. Dental caries is a biofilm-driven, sugar-dependant disease that can occur at any age.

Caries can occur in both milk teeth (primary dentition) and permanent teeth (secondary dentition), resulting in the structural damage of the tooth.

Around 32% of the world population is affected by dental caries, making it the second most common disease after common cold.

What are its signs and symptoms?

The following are the signs and symptoms of dental caries:

Early signs include

  • Sensitivity to hot and cold foods
  • Pain or discomfort on biting
  • Tooth discolouration

Late symptoms include

  • Swelling of gums
  • Continuous unbearable pain
  • Night pain
  • Grossly broken teeth

Occasionally, you may experience no pain at all and may be surprised when your dentist finds a cavity in your teeth.

What are its main causes?

Cavity is caused by the bacteria present in the mouth, which attach to the teeth in the presence of sucrose, other sugars, and refined starches. These bacteria produce acid and erode the enamel, which is the strongest layer of the tooth.

Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are the main bacteria responsible for dental caries.

Nursing bottle caries occurs when the baby is fed with sugary milk at bedtime.

How is it diagnosed and treated?

  • A dentist will first examine the oral cavity with the instruments, i.e., visual and tactile inspection.
  • If needed, the dentist may take a radiograph to confirm the visual inspection.
  • At the end, after correlating the findings with the patient’s symptoms, the dentist may suggest a treatment plan.
  • Depending on the extent of the cavity, the dentist may decide the procedure.
  1. Early treatment – Fluoridated varnish application may help in re-mineralising the enamel.
  2. In the later stages, the tooth needs to be restored with a filling or a root canal treatment, and in severely decayed cases, the dentist may extract the tooth.
  • There may be fever associated with dental infections, such as abscess
  • However, self-care, including having a nutritious and low sugary diet, is very important.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Initially, a white spot develops on the tooth indicating demineralisation. However, these white spots are sometimes intrinsic in nature, and this condition is known as dental fluorosis.
  • The tooth may get discoloured due to trauma as well. Hence, discolouration of a tooth does not always indicate a cavity.
  • There may be staining of pits and fissures due to tea and coffee. Hence, a dentist would first visually inspect before deciding on the treatment plan.

The duration of treatment may vary depending upon the length of the treatment. With recent technological advances, single sitting treatment plans are also possible. A dental treatment may get painful but rarely. Often, treatments are performed under local anaesthesia to give a painless experience. Caries might be treated by applying a fluoride gel or the teeth are filled using a filling. If it is deep, it might be cleaned and covered with a dental crown. If it is severe, the decayed tooth might need extraction.

Home-care remedies to prevent dental caries are

  • Twice-daily brushing
  • Use of fluoridated toothpaste
  • Regular self-examination of teeth
  • Use of mouthwash
  • Reduced in-between meals
  1. Medicines for Cavities (Dental Caries)

Medicines for Cavities (Dental Caries)

Medicines listed below are available for Cavities (Dental Caries). Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.

Medicine NamePack SizePrice (Rs.)
AflurAflur 0.03%W/V Ear Drops36.51
Bellflur Eye DropBellflur Eye Drop38.71
CadiflurCadiflur 0.03% Eye Drops57.1
EyeflurEyeflur 0.03% Eye Drops53.0
Flubi (Entod)Flubi 0.03% Eye Drops46.0
FlubifenFlubifen 0.03% Eye Drops30.0
FludropFludrop 0.03% Eye Drops35.0
FlufenFlufen 0.03% Eye Drops50.0
FlurbirenFlurbiren 0.03% Eye Drops50.19
FlurbitopFlurbitop Eye Drops26.97
FlurFlur Eye Drop121.88
KaziflurKaziflur 0.03%W/V Eye Drops66.0
LufenLufen Eye Drops28.0
Migrid (Crescent)Migrid 10 Mg Tablet36.7
OptifenOptifen 0.03% Eye Drops32.06
Profen Eye DropProfen 0.03% Eye Drops50.0
SioflurSioflur 0.03% Eye Drops44.27
FlbFlb Eye Drops89.06
Flu BiFlu Bi Eye Drops35.0
Froben FrFroben Fr Powder28.0
HylurHylur Eye Drops25.2
Ocuflur OntOcuflur Ont Eye Ointment40.66
BrugelBrugel 5% W/W Gel108.5
FbnFbn 0.03% Eye Drop52.94
FlurbinFlurbin 0.03% W/V Eye Drop53.9
OcuflurOcuflur Eye Drop42.2
Fluoritop SrFluoritop Sr Paint 1.5 Ml471.76
NunafNunaf Tablet49.5
OtoflourOtoflour 20 Mg Tablet49.19
Florocid 1%W/V/2%W/V InjectionFlorocid 1%W/V/2%W/V Injection14.85
FlubichlorFlubichlor 0.5%W/V/0.03%W/V Eye Drops0.0
FlubigatFlubigat 0.3 Mg/3 Mg Eye Drops58.0
FlurgatFlurgat 0.3 Mg/3 Mg Eye Drop71.5
Gatiaid FGatiaid F 0.03%/0.3% Eye Drops72.0
ProflurProflur Eye Drop40.0
SaplureSaplure Eye Drop38.0
ToflerTofler Eye Drop35.0
RayflurRayflur Eye Drops49.5
TakflurTakflur 0.03%W/V/0.25%W/V/0.001%W/V Eye Drop60.0
PenfenPenfen Eye Drop59.0
NitraNitra Oral Solution46.0
TriguardTriguard 0.2% Mouth Wash39.5
Cofton SyrupCofton Syrup

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