Dr. Ayush PandeyMBBS,PG Diploma

January 12, 2019

March 06, 2020


What is trauma?

Trauma is a condition that results from a set of circumstances, a series of events, or a harmful or threatening event that an individual experiences emotionally or physically. This event can have long-lasting adverse effects on the individual's social, emotional, physical functioning and well-being.

What are its main signs and symptoms?

Mental responses to a traumatic event include:

  • Reduced memory and concentration
  • Disturbed thoughts about the event
  • Confusion
  • Parts of the event repetitively playing in the mind

Physical responses to a traumatic event include:

Behavioural responses to a traumatic event include:

  • Changes in appetite
  • Drifting away from regular routines
  • Sleeping issues
  • Getting engrossed in tasks related to recovery
  • Developing habits of cigarette, alcohol and coffee consumption
  • Inability to stop thinking about the event
  • Avoiding any memories associated with the event

Emotional responses to a traumatic event include:

  • Panic, anxiety, and fear
  • Feeling emotionless
  • State of shock
  • Feeling confused and detached
  • Moving away from people and not wanting to connect with them
  • Feeling like the event is still happening and that there’s danger around
  • Feeling of exhaustion after the event is over
  • Feeling let down after the event is over
  • Experiencing feelings of guilt, depression, avoidance, and oversensitivity during the let-down phase

What are the main causes?

Experiencing the following events could trigger a traumatic response in a person:

  • Loss
  • Physical and sexual abuse
  • Community, domestic, workplace violence
  • Crime
  • Natural calamity
  • Feeling of deprivation
  • Traumatic sorrow
  • Medical procedures, injury or illness

How is it diagnosed and treated?

Trauma is diagnosed when an adult has all of these symptoms for more than at least a period of one month:

  • At least two reactivity and arousal symptoms
  • At least one of the re-experiencing symptoms
  • At least two mood and cognition symptoms
  • At least one of the avoidance symptoms

Trauma is treated using:

  • Cognitive behavioural therapy
  • Exposure therapy
  • Cognitive restructuring
  • Systematic desensitisation
  • Anxiety management
  • Stress reduction therapy
  • Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing
  • Antidepressants and other medications.



  1. Missouri Department of Mental Health [Internet]: Missouri State; What is Trauma?
  2. Better health channel. Department of Health and Human Services [internet]. State government of Victoria; Trauma - reaction and recovery.
  3. National Institute of Mental Health [Internet] Bethesda, MD; Models of Trauma Treatment. National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland, United States
  4. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (US). Trauma-Informed Care in Behavioral Health Services. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 2014. (Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 57.) Chapter 3, Understanding the Impact of Trauma.
  5. Center for Disease Control and Prevention [internet], Atlanta (GA): US Department of Health and Human Services; Helping Patients Cope With A Traumatic Event .

Medicines for Trauma

Medicines listed below are available for Trauma. Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.