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What is multiple myeloma?

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer which occurs in the plasma cells of the body. These cells are normally found in the bone marrow and form a part of the immune system. Multiple myeloma results in the accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, affecting the production of blood cells.

What are its main signs and symptoms?

Multiple myeloma starts to display a wide range of signs and symptoms in the later stages, some of which are:

  • Consistent bone pain
  • Weakening of the bones, resulting in frequent fractures even with the slightest impact
  • Anaemia
  • Frequent infections
  • Raised levels of calcium in the blood which leads to stomach pains, extreme thirst, constipation and drowsiness
  • Kidney problems start to occur, leading to malfunction or failure of the kidneys

What are the main causes?

The exact cause of multiple myeloma is not described or confirmed by doctors, but there are certain factors believed to increase the risk of multiple myeloma. Age above 35, obesity, family history of multiple myeloma, male gender and being African American increases the risk of being diagnosed with the condition.

One important factor is the imbalance between oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. The oncogenes are responsible for the growth of cells in the human body, while the tumour suppressor genes slow down the growth or cause the death of cells at the right time. A condition resulting in mutation and malfunction of these genes can lead to uncontrolled growth of plasma cells, resulting in multiple myeloma.

How is it diagnosed and treated?

If the symptoms and signs are suggestive of multiple myeloma, an X-ray, complete blood count, urine analysis, CT scan, PET scan, or MRI is ordered. These scans help in determining the location and extent of a tumour.

A biopsy is a more definitive test for confirming multiple myeloma. Samples of bone marrow are taken to determine the possible existence of cancerous plasma cells in the bone marrow.

Chemotherapy is the most common treatment for multiple myeloma, though it results in certain side effects too. Chemotherapy drugs are used to kill the cancerous cells and stop tumour growth.

Other medications are also used but are not always successful in curing the disease or have many side effects. These medications include:

  • Steroids – Steroids are generally used to complement the chemotherapy drugs and make them more effective. The main side effects of steroids are heartburn, indigestion and difficulty sleeping.
  • Thalidomide – Thalidomide also helps in killing the myeloma cells but often result in constipation and dizziness. Moreover, there is a risk of blood clot formation which presents as pain or swelling in the leg, breathlessness and chest pain.
  • Stem cell transplant – In extreme cases of myeloma, a stem cell transplant is performed to replace the damaged bone marrow tissue with healthy stem cells, which results in the growth of new cells and allows the bone marrow to recover.

These treatments are costly, painful and require a lot of commitment from the patient and the doctors in charge of the treatment.

  1. Medicines for Multiple Myeloma

Medicines for Multiple Myeloma

Medicines listed below are available for Multiple Myeloma. Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.

Medicine NamePack SizePrice (Rs.)
DefloxDeflox 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops12.0
BiodexoneBiodexone 4 Mg Injection6.0
DecamycinDecamycin 4 Mg Injection33.0
DecdanDecdan 0.5 Mg Tablet1.0
DexajectDexaject 4 Mg Injection9.0
DexaDexa Injection20.0
DexonaDexona 0.5 Mg Tablet3.0
Dex ZDex Z Powder67.0
MeridecaMerideca 4 Mg Injection33.0
OzurdexOzurdex 0.7 Mg Injection24303.0
ZydexaZydexa 4 Mg Injection26.0
AuradexAuradex 8 Mg Tablet60.0
DecakemDecakem Injection7.0
DecdakDecdak St 0.5 Mg Tablet2.0
DecicortDecicort 0.5 Mg Tablet3.0
DecmaxDecmax 4 Mg Tablet16.0
DecoliteDecolite 0.01% Drops15.0
DeksaDeksa 4 Mg Injection5.0
DemisoneDemisone 0.5 Mg Tablet2.0
DexacipDexacip 0.1% Drops8.0
DexageeDexagee 0.5 Mg Tablet12.0
DexalabDexalab 4 Mg Injection13.0
Dexamethasone 0.5 Mg TabletDexamethasone 0.5 Mg Tablet3.0
DexapenDexapen 4 Mg Injection6.0
DexarilDexaril 4 Mg Injection12.0
DexasoneDexasone 0.10% Eye/Ear Drops7.43
DicorsoneDicorsone 0.5 Mg Injection6.0
LabizoneLabizone 20 Ml Injection22.0
Lodex(Syntho)Lodex 0.05% Drops9.0
LupidexaLupidexa 0.5 Mg Tablet2.0
MethasoneMethasone Tablet4.0
RavicortRavicort 4 Mg Injection9.0
UdicortUdicort 4 Mg Injection35.0
WymesoneWymesone 0.5 Mg Tablet2.0
AgidexAgidex Injection18.0
DecadronDecadron Injection10.0
DeexaDeexa 4 Mg Injection7.0
DexajetDexajet Injection9.0
DexamarkDexamark 4 Mg Injection9.0
Dexamethasone 4 Mg InjectionDexamethasone 4 Mg Injection12.0
Dexamethasone Sodium PhosphateDexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection85.0
DexamoxDexamox Kid Forte Tablet44.0
DexanirDexanir Injection9.0
DexasoleDexasole Injection5.0
DexasporinDexasporin Injection6.0
Dex EDex E Powder17.0
DexometDexomet 0.25% W/W Cream128.0
DexonilDexonil 4 Mg Injection63.0
DexonDexon Injection25.0
DexzyDexzy Injection5.0
OsidexOsidex Injection5.0
StedexStedex 0.5%/0.1% Eye Drops12.48
ZoftadexZoftadex 4 Mg Injection190.0
CyclocelCyclocel 1000 Mg Injection113.38
CycloxanCycloxan 1000 Mg Injection144.0
CycramCycram 1 Gm Injection104.76
CydoxanCydoxan 500 Mg Injection68.4
EndoxanEndoxan 1 Gm Injection174.41
OncomideOncomide 1 Gm Injection99.77
OncophosOncophos 1 Gm Infusion106.0
OncoxanOncoxan 500 Mg Injection57.14
PhosmidPhosmid 1000 Mg Injection79.0
CyphosCyphos 500 Mg Injection40.18
UniphosUniphos 1000 Mg Injection107.3
AdriamycinAdriamycin 10 Mg Injection221.61
AdriblastinaAdriblastina Injection1309.52
Adronex RdAdronex Rd 10 Mg Injection185.71
AdrosalAdrosal 10 Mg Injection196.43
CadriaCadria 10 Mg Injection166.66
CardiaroneCardiarone 100 Mg Tablet65.47
DoxilydDoxilyd 10 Mg Injection119.04
DoxohopeDoxohope 20 Mg Injection8163.26
DoxorexDoxorex 10 Mg Injection321.75
Doxorubicin (Dr. Reddys)Doxorubicin 10 Mg Injection116.66
DoxorubicinDoxorubicin 10 Mg Injection200.0
DoxorubinDoxorubin 10 Mg Injection130.95
DoxotarDoxotar 10 Mg Injection285.0
DoxoteroDoxotero 10 Mg Injection165.0
DoxulipDoxulip 20 Mg Injection7890.0
DoxutecDoxutec 10 Mg Injection170.0
DuxocinDuxocin 10 Mg Injection190.94
LyphidoxLyphidox 10 Mg Injection198.91
MetodoxMetodox 10 Mg Injection63.09
OncodriaOncodria 10 Mg Injection199.64
PiglitPiglit 2 Mg Injection6184.52
ZodoxZodox 10 Mg Injection196.19
ZubidoxZubidox 10 Mg Injection200.0
LenalidLenalid 10 Mg Capsule8976.0
Lenalid MfLenalid Mf 25 Mg Capsule18501.2
LenangioLenangio 10 Mg Capsule2821.0
LenidLenid 10 Mg Capsule2900.0
LenmidLenmid 10 Mg Capsule2000.0
LenomeLenome 25 Mg Capsule17142.9
LenomustLenomust 10 Mg Capsule8750.0
LenzestLenzest 10 Mg Capsule2888.2
MyelosafeMyelosafe Capsule85.0
Myelosafe PgMyelosafe Pg Tablet105.34
BiocureBiocure 2 Mg Injection15852.4
BortecadBortecad 2 Mg Injection15201.5
BortenatBortenat 2 Mg Injection12688.0
BortetrustBortetrust 2 Mg Injection11904.8
BorvizBorviz 2 Mg Injection15864.8
MyezomMyezom 2 Mg Injection13125.0
OrtezOrtez 2 Mg Injection12696.1
TazentaTazenta 2 Mg Injection13115.0
VelcadeVelcade 3.5 Mg Injection60940.4
VeltipVeltip 2 Mg Injection15507.0
BaximibBaximib 2 Mg Injection15727.4
BortemapBortemap 2 Mg Injection11308.5
BortracBortrac 2 Mg Injection3999.0
ProteozProteoz 2 Mg Injection11542.8
ZomibetZomibet 2 Mg Injection12200.0
OncothalOncothal 100 Mg Capsule518.75
RedemideRedemide 100 Mg Capsule500.0
TalimydeTalimyde 100 Mg Tablet750.0
ThaangioThaangio 100 Mg Capsule2310.38
ThalideThalide 100 Mg Capsule777.83
ThalixThalix 100 Mg Capsule595.14
ThalodaThaloda 100 Mg Capsule594.9
ThalomaThaloma 100 Mg Capsule828.5
ThalonThalon 100 Mg Tablet676.0
ThycadThycad 100 Mg Capsule480.9
ThaliteroThalitero 100 Mg Capsule649.63
Cadria LCadria L 2 Mg Injection8500.0
DoxoparDoxopar 10 Mg Injection330.0
KemodoxaKemodoxa 2 Mg Injection7963.71
LipisolLipisol 50 Mg Injection8163.26
LipodoxLipodox 10 Mg Injection4013.62
LippodLippod 20 Mg Injection6547.62
NudoxaNudoxa 20 Mg Injection6250.0
OncodoxOncodox 10 Mg Injection222.62
PegadriaPegadria 20 Mg Injection6530.95
RubilongRubilong 2 Mg Injection8241.76
AdvadoxAdvadox 20 Mg Injection8064.0
CaelyxCaelyx 20 Mg Infusion48956.3
LipegLipeg 20 Mg Injection6614.28
LipopegLipopeg 20 Mg Injection8000.0
DexacortDexacort Eye Drop17.73
Dexacort (Klar Sheen)Dexacort (Klar Sheen) 0.1% Eye Drop18.62
SolodexSolodex 0.1% Eye/Ear Drops7.23
Lupidexa CLupidexa C Eye Drop9.75
Ocugate DxOcugate Dx Eye Drop10.62
AlkacelAlkacel 2 Mg Tablet1636.9
AlkeranAlkeran 2 Mg Tablet362.32
AlphalanAlphalan 2 Mg Tablet2967.03
MegvalMegval 50 Mg Injection1785.71
ConsiumConsium 100 Mg Injection3497.95
AdrimAdrim 10 Mg Injection214.28
DoxiglanDoxiglan 50 Mg Injection999.0
DexapinDexapin 1%/0.10% Eye Drop20.0
Gate DxGate Dx 0.1%/0.3% Drops37.35
4 Quin Dx4 Quin Dx Eye Drop17.84
Apdrops DmApdrops Dm 0.5% W/V/1% W/V Eye Drop108.0
Dexcin MDexcin M Eye Drop67.0
Mfc DMfc D Eye Drop88.0
Mflotas DxMflotas Dx 0.5%W/V/0.1%W/V Eye Drop90.0
Mo 4 DxMo 4 Dx Eye Drop80.0
Moxifax DxMoxifax Dx Eye Drop55.0
Moxitak DmMoxitak Dm Eye Drops20.12
MyticomMyticom Eye Drop75.74
Occumox DmOccumox Dm 0.5%/0.1% Eye Drop17.8
Mflotas DMflotas D Eye Drop18.08
Mflotas TMflotas T Injection18.08
MilflodexMilflodex Eye Drop115.0
Milflox DmMilflox Dm Eye Drop21.3
Mosi DMosi D Eye Drop11.25
MoxigramMoxigram 400 Mg Tablet115.86
Occumox DOccumox D Eye Drop17.8
Aflox DAflox D 0.3%/0.1% Drops15.4
Amoflox DAmoflox D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops11.15
Deflox DmDeflox Dm Eye Drops27.62
Festive DFestive D 0.3%/0.1% Drop26.0
Flan DxFlan Dx Eye Drops13.75
O Cebran DO Cebran D 0.3%/0.1% Drops18.0
Ofc DxOfc Dx 0.3%/0.1% Drops10.67
OfdexOfdex 0.3%W/V/0.1%W/V Eye/Ear Drops12.0
Ofelder DOfelder D 0.3%/0.1% Drops10.53
Ofen DxOfen Dx 0.3%/0.1% Drops25.76
Oflo DmOflo Dm 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops10.95
Oflomac DxOflomac Dx 0.3%/0.1% Eye/Ear Drops7.51
Oflozen DOflozen D 0.3%/0.1% Drops11.04
Olin DOlin D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops35.9
Omeflox DxOmeflox Dx 0.3%/0.1% Drops10.82
O Syn DxO Syn Dx Drops10.05
Oxop DOxop D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops11.71
Zevid DZevid D 0.3%/0.1% Drops16.8
Zo DZo D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drop8.69
Zuflo DZuflo D 0.3%/0.1% Eye/Ear Drops8.75
Zynoff DZynoff D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drop9.06
Oflacin DxOflacin Dx Eye Drop11.68
OfrondOfrond Eye Drops8.75
Protoflox DProtoflox D Eye/Ear Drops9.12
Appatoba DAppatoba D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops12.1
Itocin DItocin D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops21.25
Ocutob DOcutob D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops11.45
TobadexTobadex 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops16.0
Tobaren DTobaren D 0.3%/0.1% Drops15.29
Tobaren DmTobaren Dm 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops58.0
Tobazon DmTobazon Dm 0.3%/0.1% Drops9.92
TobradexTobradex 0.30%/.1% Drops18.29
Tobram DTobram D Eye Drops17.25
Toby DToby D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops11.08
Tojawa DTojawa D 0.3%/0.1% Drops13.67
TromadexTromadex 0.3%/0.1% Drops10.0
Paritob DParitob D Eye Drop37.71
TeradoxTeradox Eye Drops20.31
Tobacin DTobacin D Eye Drop35.9
Tobracid DmTobracid Dm Eye Drop13.56
Tobramed DTobramed D Eye/Ear Drops10.82
Tobrine DmTobrine Dm Eye Drops19.75
Tsun DTsun D Eye Drops19.15
TybroTybro Eye Drops40.0
Dexapin CDexapin C Eye Drop13.97
Biocip DBiocip D 0.3%/0.1% Drop9.8
Ceprolen DCeprolen D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops11.18
Ciplex (Leeford)Ciplex 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops10.62
Cipromac D (Torque)Cipromac D Drop10.61
Ciprozen DCiprozen D 0.3%/0.1% Drops19.37
Kemocip DKemocip D 0.3%/0.1% Eye/Ear Drops9.71
Larcip DLarcip D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops7.25
Lucipro DLucipro D 0.3%/0.1% Eye/Ear Drops12.07
Zoxan DZoxan D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drop8.59
Ahlox DAhlox D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops9.2
Cebran DCebran D Eye Drop9.33
Ceflox DCeflox D Drop26.0
Chlorodex (Sun)Chlorodex Drop10.0
Cifomed DCifomed D Drop16.75
Cipcos DCipcos D Drops14.0
Ciplox DCiplox D Eye/Ear Drops14.0
KemocipKemocip Eye/Ear Drops7.28
Swiflox DSwiflox D Eye Drop7.5
Garasol DGarasol D 0.3%/0.1% Drops11.5
Gencin D MGencin D M Drops18.0
Gentacip DGentacip D 0.3%/0.1% Drop9.62
Gentajin DGentajin D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops7.04
Gentamide DmGentamide Dm 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops8.2
Gentapen DGentapen D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops8.36
Genticare DGenticare D 0.01%/0.3% Eye Drops9.66
GermentadGermentad 0.3%/0.1% Drops7.8
GlycortGlycort 0.3%/0.1% Drops10.0
Gentaglow DGentaglow D 0.3%/0.1% Eye Drops20.0
PyricortPyricort Eye Drop9.39
Biodexone NBiodexone N 0.5%/0.1% Eye Drops9.37
Dekortyn NDekortyn N 0.5%/0.1% Drops8.25
Dexacort NDexacort N 0.5%/0.1% Eye Ointment9.11
DexcinDexcin Eye/Ear Drops11.55
Opthodex NOpthodex N 0.5%/0.1% Drops9.41
Biosone PBiosone P Eye/Ear Drops40.0
Ocupol DOcupol D Eye Drop13.44
Renicol PxRenicol Px Eye Drops21.0
Takchlor CTakchlor C 10 Mg/1 Mg/5000 Iu Ointment46.2
Deximon PDeximon P Eye Drops22.5
Imix 10Imix 10 Eye Drops30.0
Imix D 10Imix D 10 Eye Drops80.0
Imix D 5Imix D 5 Eye Drops47.5
Imix DImix D Eye Drops36.25
Ocupol DxOcupol Dx Drop75.61
D ChlorexD Chlorex Eye Drops7.99
Decakem CDecakem C Eye Drops11.76
DecoDeco 0.5%W/V/0.01%W/V Eye/Ear Drops10.62
Dekortyn CDekortyn C 1%/0.1% Drops8.86
DexamonDexamon 1%/0.1% Drops9.8
DeximonDeximon 0.5%/0.1% Eye Drops47.55
Eptico DEptico D 5%/0.1% Drops9.66
KlorumdKlorumd 1%/0.1% Drops7.8
OpthodexOpthodex 1%/0.1% Eye Drops9.4
Opthodex SOpthodex S Drops9.75
PolydexPolydex 1%/0.1% Eye/Ear Drops43.75
RenidexRenidex 1%/0.1% Drops8.89
AvimonAvimon Eye Drops11.0
CareCare Drops51.05
Chlorgull DChlorgull D Eye/Ear Drops7.37
ChloridexChloridex Eye Drops20.87
Chlormet DmChlormet Dm Drops11.75
Chlorodex (Leeford)Chlorodex Eye Drop10.0
ClodilClodil Eye Drops35.87
Pc DexPc Dex Eye/Ear Drops37.98
PyrimonPyrimon Eye Drop11.4
VisomerVisomer Eye Drop23.93
KedexKedex 0.5%/0.1% Eye Drop50.0
KetrodexKetrodex Eye Drop70.0
Low DexLow Dex Eye/Ear Drops9.75
NordexNordex Eye Drops44.88
SofradexSofradex Cream29.42
Sofradex FSofradex F Cream25.58
Tympalin CTympalin C Drops45.0

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