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What is dementia?

Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterised by a significant decline in cognitive functioning. It is a collection of symptoms that occur in a number of diseases. It features loss of cognitive and behavioural functioning that affects one’s daily life. It is a global crisis and more than 4 million Indians affected by some form of dementia.

What are its main associated signs and symptoms?

Symptoms of dementia usually show insidious onset and gradual progression.

  • Commonly associated signs and symptoms include:
    • Reduced learning ability
    • Decline in memory
    • Personality and mood changes
    • Psychomotor slowing

What are its main causes?

Extensive damage of nerve cells leads to symptoms of dementia.

The most common cause is Alzheimer’s disease which involves short-term memory deficits.

Other common causes of dementia include:

  • Vascular dementia: This occurs as a result of damage to the blood vessels that supply the brain.
  • Lewy body dementia: Lewy bodies are abnormal clumps of protein that affect cognitive functioning of a person.
  • Frontotemporal dementia: Degeneration of nerve cells in the areas of the brain that control personality, language and behaviour.
  • Mixed dementia: Studies suggest that people aged 80 years and above have a combination of the above-mentioned dementias.
  • Other uncommon causes: Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, traumatic brain injury, metabolic and endocrine disorders, adverse reaction to medications, poisoning and brain tumours.

How is it diagnosed and treated?

Medical history of the patient and physical examination is required for the diagnosis of dementia.

Assessment of cognitive function is done during the consultation, but may also require additional tests.

Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely used test for assessing cognitive function.

Further investigations, if required, may include:

  • Blood tests
  • MRI or CT scan of brain
  • EEG (electroencephalogram)

Treatment with medications shows very little response. Medications prescribed are for increasing the chemicals that transmit nerve signals. These are found to be useful only during the early to middle stages of dementia.

Antidepressants are useful in case of disturbed sleep.

The use of antipsychotics has been shown to pose a greater risk of death.

Supportive care plays a major role in the management of patients with dementia. As the symptoms progress, the need for assistance also increases.

  1. Dementia की दवा - Medicines for Dementia in Hindi
  2. Doctors for Dementia
Dr. Saurabh Mehrotra

Dr. Saurabh Mehrotra

मनोचिकित्सा

Dr. Om Prakash L

Dr. Om Prakash L

मनोचिकित्सा

Dr. Anil Kumar

Dr. Anil Kumar

मनोचिकित्सा

Dementia की दवा - Medicines for Dementia in Hindi

Medicines listed below are available for Dementia. Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.

Medicine NamePack SizePrice (Rs.)
DonepDONEP 10MG TABLET 10S201
Citilin PCitilin P 500 Mg/400 Mg Tablet464
Citimac PCitimac P 500 Mg/800 Mg Tablet457
Citinerve PCitinerve P 500 Mg/400 Mg Tablet432
Clinaxon PClinaxon P 500 Mg/400 Mg Tablet386
Cognipil PlusCognipil Plus Tablet0
NicerbiumNICERBIUM 30MG TABLET432
Dalus ForteDalus Forte Tablet474
B CitamB CITAM TABLET 10S0
N Citi PlusN Citi Plus 500 Mg/800 Mg Tablet0
Neuciti ForteNeuciti Forte Tablet330
Schwabe Narcissus pseudo narcissus MTSchwabe Narcissus pseudo narcissus MT 88
Neuciti PlusNEUCITI PLUS TABLET 10S456
Neurocetam PlusNeurocetam Plus Tablet392
SermionSERMION 30MG TABLET 10S0
Nutam PlusNutam Plus 800 Mg/500 Mg Tablet360
Nervijen CTNERVIJEN CT TABLET 10S0
Prexaron PlusPrexaron Plus 500 Mg/800 Mg Tablet503
Somazina PlusSomazina Plus Tablet484
ToxifiteToxifite Tablet144
Alfa GPCALFA GPC 400MG PASTILLES508
Storax PrStorax Pr 500 Mg/800 Mg Tablet503

Do you or anyone in your family have this disease? Please do a survey and help others

References

  1. EL Cunningham et al. Dementia. Ulster Med J. 2015 May; 84(2): 79–87. PMID: 26170481
  2. National Institute on Aging. What Is Dementia? Symptoms, Types, and Diagnosis. U.S Department of Health and Human Services. [Internet]
  3. Adrianne Dill Linton. Introduction to Medical-Surgical Nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2015. 1408 pages
  4. Health On The Net. What causes dementia?. [Internet]
  5. Alzheimer's Association. Alzheimer's and Dementia in India. Chicago, IL; [Internet]
  6. National institute of neurological disorders and stroke [internet]. US Department of Health and Human Services; Dementia Information
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