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What is herpes simplex encephalitis?

Although rarely occurring, herpes simplex encephalitis is a neurological condition with a high death rate and morbidity rate. It is caused by herpes simplex virus and manifests as fever, hyperactivity, drowsiness, and/or general weakness.

What are its main signs and symptoms?

  • Early symptoms include:
    • Headache
    • Fever
    • Seizures
    • Drowsiness with general weakness
    • Confusion
    • Disorientation
  • Late symptoms include:
    • Difficulty in communicating through speech or writing
    • Loss of sense of smell
    • Memory loss
    • Hyperactivity
    • Psychotic episodes
  • Additional severe symptoms include:

What are the main causes?

  • The most common cause of herpes simplex encephalitis is a herpes simplex virus type I infection.
  • Other uncommon causes include:
    • Herpes simplex virus type II infection (more common in the newborns).
    • Some of the symptoms of herpes simplex encephalitis may arise as a result of tissue degeneration associated with haemorrhagic necrosis (death of the tissue) in the brain.
    • Herpes simplex encephalitis occurs when an inactive, dormant herpes simplex virus lying in the nerve tissue becomes reactive as a result of stress or trauma. The latent virus has the potential to become reactive years after initial exposure to herpes simplex virus.

How is it diagnosed and treated?

Diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis is based on clinical examination and investigations.

Investigations include:

  • Blood test
  • Cerebrospinal fluid examination
  • Electroencephalogram
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Brain biopsy

Early treatment with antiviral medications has shown to be beneficial in recovering from herpes simplex encephalitis.

The doctor may prescribe a 14-day course of acyclovir tablets as needed.

Depending on the severity of the condition, the doctor may administer intravenous acyclovir.

Anticonvulsants will be necessary in the case of seizures associated with herpes simplex encephalitis.

Elevation of the head, mannitol or glycerol administration and hyperventilation may be advised in order to maintain a reduced arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide.

  1. Medicines for Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE)

Medicines for Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE)

Medicines listed below are available for Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE). Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.

Medicine NamePack SizePrice (Rs.)
Acicet TabletAcicet 200 Mg Tablet Dt49.0
AciherpinAciherpin 200 Mg Tablet57.0
AcivexAcivex 200 Mg Tablet Dt78.0
AxovirAxovir 250 Mg Injection258.0
Lovir (Eli Lilly)Lovir 400 Mg Tablet124.0
NeoclovirNeoclovir 250 Mg Injection218.0
TriclovirTriclovir 400 Mg Tablet120.0
TrikaseTrikase 800 Mg Tablet233.0
VazovirVazovir 500 Mg Injection670.0
Vir InjectionVir 250 Mg Injection471.0
AcivAciv 400 Mg Tablet110.0
AcivirAcivir 200 Mg Tablet Dt66.0
AclovirAclovir 200 Mg Tablet55.0
AtcAtc 800 Mg Capsule38.0
CyclopizCyclopiz 200 Mg Tablet55.0
DocvirDocvir 400 Mg Tablet Dt51.0
GlenviraxGlenvirax 200 Mg Tablet18.0
HerperaxHerperax 200 Mg Tablet36.0
HerpesafeHerpesafe 400 Mg Tablet Dt66.0
HerpexHerpex 100 Mg Tablet81.0
HerpikindHerpikind 200 Mg Tablet72.0
HerzovirHerzovir 250 Mg Injection465.0
LovirLovir 200 Mg Tablet365.0
NorbitaNorbita 400 Mg Tablet12.0
OcuvirOcuvir 120 Mg Suspension128.0
OptiviralOptiviral 200 Mg Tablet51.0
PsyvirPsyvir 400 Mg Tablet137.0
RivolRivol 200 Mg Tablet60.0
ViraxVirax 800 Mg Tablet211.0
ZosterZoster 5%W/W Cream15.0
ZoviraxZovirax 200 Mg Tablet33.0
ZovistarZovistar 200 Mg Tablet56.0
ZoylexZoylex 500 Mg Injection670.0
Zoylex RdZoylex Rd 250 Mg Injection529.0
RhovirRhovir 800 Mg Tablet204.0
ZovirZovir 400 Mg Tablet129.0
ClovirClovir 5% Ointment37.63
OpthovirOpthovir 3% Ointment46.66
SetuvirSetuvir 5% Cream36.4
ToxinexToxinex 3% Eye Ointment65.0
ViraVira Eye Ointment38.25
VirinoxVirinox 3% W/W Eye Ointment43.5
VirucidVirucid 3% Eye Ointment49.95
YavirYavir 3% Eye Ointment38.0
AcyclovirAcyclovir 5% W/W Eye Ointment67.17
ClovidermCloviderm 5% Ointment18.75
EyevirEyevir 3% Eye Ointment45.0
Primacort PlusPrimacort Plus 5% Cream66.67
Lysatone PlusLysatone Plus Syrup108.75
Aminodrip (Baxter India)Aminodrip Infusion124.53
LycypLycyp Syrup63.0
Peritol GPeritol G Drop15.67

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