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What is Male Hypogonadism?

Male hypogonadism is a condition characterised by a deficiency in the testosterone levels (hormone playing main role in the growth and development of males during puberty), as the body is not able to produce it in sufficient quantities. This condition can have a great impact on the quality of life of the affected. Besides being a sex hormone, testosterone is considered critical for sexual, cognitive, and body functions (which includes the functioning of the brain and metabolic and vascular systems) and development.

Hypogonadism is of two types, i.e., primary (in the testicles) and secondary (in the hypothalamus or pituitary gland).

What are the main signs and symptoms?

The common signs and symptoms of hypogonadism include

  • Anaemia
  • Muscle wasting
  • Reduced bone mass or bone mineral density or osteoporosis
  • Abdominal fat
  • Hot flushes
  • Decreased body hair
  • Delayed epiphyseal closure
  • Gynaecomastia
  • Sexual dysfunction, including
    • Erectile dysfunction
    • Reduced energy, stamina, libido, penile sensation, or sperm count
    • Difficulty attaining orgasm
    • Small testes
    • Depressed mood or increased irritability
    • Concentration difficulty
    • Changes in cholesterol levels

What are the main causes?

The main causes of primary hypogonadism are

  • Old age
  • Klinefelter's syndrome
  • Mumps orchitis
  • Haemochromatosis
  • Injured or undescended testicles
  • Cancer treatment including chemotherapy or radiation therapy

The main causes of secondary hypogonadism are

  • Obesity
  • Disorders of the pituitary gland
  • Stress-induced hypercortisolism
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Kallmann syndrome
  • Diseases which includes tuberculosis, sarcodiosis, histiocytosis
  • Medications, such as opiate pain drugs and hormones

How is it diagnosed and treated?

The diagnosis is made by the physician mainly based on the symptoms, and the following tests are advised:

  • Hormone testing
  • Serum testosterone or free testosterone
  • Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) for secondary hypogonadism
  • Semen analysis
  • Pituitary imaging
  • Testicular biopsy
  • Genetic studies

The first line of treatment is testosterone replacement therapy, which should provide 300-800 ng/dL of testosterone. It can be in the form of:

  • A transdermal patch that delivers testosterone over a 24-hour period continuously.
  • Buccal testosterone tablets, which are used as pulsatile release of testosterone.
  • An implantable pellet, which is surgically implanted intended for slow release.
  • Topical gel, which is used for longer-lasting elevations in serum testosterone.
  • Intramuscular injections are used for prolonged absorption, which are suspended in oil.
  • Oral testosterone tablets, currently not available in India.

 

  1. Medicines for Male Hypogonadism

Medicines for Male Hypogonadism

Medicines listed below are available for Male Hypogonadism. Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.

Medicine NamePack SizePrice (Rs.)
Sifasi HpSifasi Hp 10000 Iu Injection870
SifasiSifasi 5000 Iu Injection321
FolisurgeFolisurge 1200 Iu Injection17523
Hucog Hp InjectionHucog Hp 10000 Iu Injection860
Persinal HpPersinal Hp 150 Iu Injection1548
SitrodinSitrodin 150 Iu Injection1142
Coriosurge HpCoriosurge Hp 5000 Iu Injection0
Eutrig HpEutrig Hp 10000 Iu Injection320
FertigynFertigyn 10000 Iu Injection792
HcgHcg 2000 Iu Injection215
Hcg SpHcg SP 5000 IU Injection360
HtropHtrop 10000 Iu Injection644
KoragonKoragon 5000 Iu Injection481
Koragon HpKoragon Hp 5000 Iu Injection458
Lutigen GoldLutigen Gold 2000 Iu Injection149
My HcgMy Hcg 2000 Iu Injection288
Neo HcgNeo Hcg 10000 Iu Injection412
OrigenOrigen 2000 Iu Injection221
OvidrelOvidrel 250 Mcg Injection1142
Ovifer HpOvifer Hp Injection360
Ovipure HpOvipure Hp 10000 Iu Injection859
OvitrellaOvitrella 250 Mcg Injection1200
Ovulate COvulate C 10000 Iu Injection349

Do you or anyone in your family have this disease? Please do a survey and help others

References

  1. Peeyush Kumar. et al. Male hypogonadism: Symptoms and treatment. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2010 Jul-Sep; 1(3): 297–301. PMID: 22247861.
  2. Christina Carnegie. Diagnosis of Hypogonadism: Clinical Assessments and Laboratory Tests. Rev Urol. 2004; 6(Suppl 6): S3–S8. PMID: 16985909.
  3. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: US National Library of Medicine; Hypogonadism.
  4. European Association of Urology. [Internet]. Arnhem, Netherlands; EAU Guidelines on Male Hypogonadism.
  5. American Academy of Family Physicians. [Internet]. Leawood,Kansas, United States; Testosterone Therapy: Review of Clinical Applications.
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