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What is hypercalcaemia?

Hypercalcaemia refers to the corrected total serum calcium value which is above the normal range or an elevated ionised calcium in the blood. Hypercalcaemia affects 0.5% to 1% of the general population. Excessive calcium in the body affects vital organs like the heart, kidney and brain, and causes weakening of bones.

What are its main signs and symptoms?

Common symptoms:

Occasionally occurring severe symptoms may include:

  • Sinus arrest
  • Disturbances in conduction of the heart
  • Symptoms that mimic myocardial infarction

What are the main causes?

Common causes of hypercalcaemia include:

  • Overactive parathyroid gland because of enlargement of the gland
  • Excessive production of the parathyroid hormone because of a growth on one of the parathyroid glands

Other causes include:

  • Cancers such as lung and breast cancer along with the metastatic spread of cancer to bones
  • Diseases like tuberculosis and sarcoidosis
  • Hereditary factors
  • Excessive intake of calcium and vitamin D supplements, lithium and diuretic medications
  • Immobility where one may lie in bed or remain inactive for weeks
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Severe dehydration
  • Postmenopausal women are at a higher risk for hypercalcaemia

How is it diagnosed and treated?

A routine blood test called complete blood count along with a few other investigations aid in diagnosing hypercalcaemia.

Your doctor may also recommend additional tests to diagnose any suspected underlying health condition.

Investigations include:

  • Tests to measure serum calcium, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D levels
  • Tests to measure urine calcium levels

Your doctor may recommend medications to control your blood calcium level.

In case of primary hyperparathyroidism, one may have to undergo surgery.

Severe hypercalcaemia may require intravenous fluid therapy and medications like bisphosphonates, steroids or diuretics.

Your doctor may advise dialysis in case of kidney failure.

  1. Medicines for Hypercalcemia

Medicines for Hypercalcemia

Medicines listed below are available for Hypercalcemia. Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.

Medicine NamePack SizePrice (Rs.)
ZometaZometa 4 Mg Injection3311
GemcalGEMCAL 120ML LIQUID126
ZolephosZolephos 5 Mg Infusion2904
ZyclastinZyclastin 4 Mg Injection2477
ZyfossZyfoss 4 Mg Injection2346
AclastaAclasta 5 Mg Infusion16393
DronicadDronicad 4 Mg Injection2000
GemdronicGemdronic 5 Mg Infusion1904
LedronzolLEDRONZOL INJECTION 5ML0
WellboneWellbone 5 Mg Infusion0
XolnicXolnic 4 Mg Injection2000
ZolastaZolasta 4 Mg Injection332
ZoldaroZoldaro 4 Mg Injection1232
ZoldriaZoldria 4 Mg Injection2463
ZoledronZoledron 4 Mg Injection0
ZolestoZolesto 4 Mg Injection2000
ZoletrustZoletrust 4 Mg Injection1276
ZolfracZolfrac 5 Mg Injection2800
ZolonZolon 4 Mg Injection2480
ZorrentZorrent 4 Mg Injection749
ZyronaZYRONA 4MG INJECTION0
Miacalcic MIACALCIC 200IU NASAL INHALER 1S0
BiocalcinBiocalcin 100 Iu Injection147
KalnaseKalnase Nasal Spray1116
UnicalcinUNICALCIN 100IU INJECTION 1ML162

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References

  1. Naganathan S, Badireddy M. Hypercalcemia. [Updated 2019 Jan 18]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-.
  2. Florida Agency for Health Care Administration. [Internet]. Florida, United States; Hypercalcemia.
  3. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: US National Library of Medicine; Hypercalcemia.
  4. Aibek E. Mirrakhimov. Hypercalcemia of Malignancy: An Update on Pathogenesis and Management. N Am J Med Sci. 2015 Nov; 7(11): 483–493. PMID: 26713296
  5. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: US National Library of Medicine; Hypercalcemia - discharge.
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