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What is hypovolaemia?

Hypovolaemia is the decrease in blood volume due to loss of blood, plasma and/or plasma water, which is encountered in cases of severe dehydration or blood loss. This eventually results in a loss of intravascular content and limits tissue perfusion. It can be fatal if left untreated.

What are its main signs and symptoms?

The common signs and symptoms of hypovolaemia include:

  • Generalised weakness
  • Paleness of skin (pallor)
  • Cool, clammy skin or sweating, moist skin
  • Rapid breathing
  • Anxiety or agitation
  • Low blood pressure (hypotension)
  • Low or no urine output
  • State of confusion
  • Unconsciousness

What are its main causes?

Hypovolemia can be caused by:

  • Loss of body fluids due to the following:
  • Blood loss due to the following:

How is it diagnosed and treated?

The diagnosis is mainly considered by the physician based on signs and symptoms and a complete physical examination. Further evaluation is done on the basis of the following tests:

  • Blood test to evaluate kidney function, complete blood count (CBC) and damage to the heart muscles
  • X-ray
  • Ultrasound
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Endoscopy
  • Echocardiogram
  • Right heart catheterisation
  • Urinary catheterisation

Treatment of hypovolaemia includes:

  • The first line of treatment would be measured to replace blood and fluids, which can be achieved by giving various oral rehydrating liquids or intravenous (IV – through veins) transfusion of blood or fluids depending upon the cause of hypovolaemia. Further, to avoid hypothermia, the individual should be made comfortable and warm.
  • In case the cause is an allergy, anti-allergens should be given.
  • In severe cases, to increase blood pressure and cardiac output (the amount of blood pumped out of the heart), medications such as norepinephrine, dopamine, epinephrine or dobutamine may be given.
  1. Medicines for Hypovolemia

Medicines for Hypovolemia

Medicines listed below are available for Hypovolemia. Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.

Medicine NamePack SizePrice (Rs.)
Hestar 200Hestar 200 3% Infusion232

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References

  1. MedlinePlus Medical: US National Library of Medicine; Hypovolemic shock
  2. Mohanchandra Mandal. Ideal resuscitation fluid in hypovolemia: The quest is on and miles to go!. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci. 2016 Apr-Jun; 6(2): 54–55. PMID: 27308250
  3. Agency of Clinical innovation. Management of Hypovolaemic Shock in the Trauma Patient. Government of New South Wales. [internet].
  4. Clinical Trials. Hypertonic Saline With Dextran for Treating Hypovolemic Shock and Severe Brain Injury. U.S. National Library of Medicine. [internet].
  5. Clinical Trials. Autonomic Challenges From Mild Hypovolemia and Mechanical Ventilation. U.S. National Library of Medicine. [internet].
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