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What is Dengue Test?

Dengue test is a blood test performed to diagnose dengue fever, a viral fever caused by mosquitos. Mosquitos that carry dengue virus are prevalent in areas with a tropical and subtropical climate. Dengue test helps identify the presence or absence of dengue virus or its antibodies in blood. Dengue fever does not spread from individual to individual. It occurs due to exposure to, and infection with any of the dengue virus serotypes, 1-4. Most individuals infected with dengue do not experience any symptoms or may experience mild flu-like symptoms such as headache, fever and chills.

However, repeated exposure to dengue virus may lead to progression of dengue to a more severe form known as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF)

Children under 10 years of age or individuals who are infected with dengue virus for the second time before the completion of the previous treatment. As individual response to dengue virus is complex, diagnosis of dengue involves a combination of blood tests. These include molecular tests (polymerase chain reaction) for dengue virus, complete blood count, antibody tests and basic metabolic panel.

  • Molecular testing: It detects the genetic material of dengue virus and helps in identifying the serotype of the virus responsible for causing the infection. Though it does not detect the virus after 7 days of illness. In case of negative results, an antibody test is recommended to establish the diagnosis.
  • Antibody testing: This test is used to detect current or recent infection with dengue virus. It identifies the presence or absence of two different class of antibodies, IgM and IgG. IgM antibody testing is more effective if performed at least 7-10 days after exposure. Levels of this antibody reduce below detectable levels after a few months. IgG antibody levels rise slowly during the infection, increase particularly in acute infection, stabilise and then persist for an extended period.
  1. Why is Dengue test performed?
  2. How do you prepare for Dengue test?
  3. How is Dengue test performed?
  4. What do Dengue test results mean?

A dengue test is carried out to identify the presence of dengue virus in blood or antibodies produced by the body to fight the virus. It is performed in individuals who have recently visited high-risk areas such as Southeast Asia, Africa, South and Central America and the Caribbean. It is also recommended in individuals experiencing the following symptoms:

  • Sudden high fever (40°C or higher)
  • Rash on the face
  • Severe headache
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Muscle pain
  • Joint and bone pain
  • Reduced levels of white blood cell count

Dengue test is also recommended in case of DHF, which presents with the following symptoms:

No special preparations are needed for dengue test. However, it is important to inform your doctor about any health conditions or medicines that you might be taking. Also, he/she should know about an ongoing or possible pregnancy.

A needle is inserted in a vein in an arm, and a blood sample is collected in a test tube or vial. The test requires about 5 minutes.

A little sting is felt at the site of needle prick during the test, and there is a very slight risk of bruising in the area of needle insertion. However, most of the time, these symptoms disappear in a short while after the test.

Dengue test results will indicate the presence or absence of dengue fever.

Normal result: A negative result, i.e., a result indicating the absence of dengue virus and dengue antibodies in blood sample is generally considered a normal result. Such individuals are not infected with dengue virus. However, sometimes the results are negative if the test is conducted at a very early stage; hence, it is important to check in with a doctor to get the correct diagnosis.

Abnormal results: A positive result, i.e., a result indicating the presence of dengue virus and/or its antibodies in blood sample is considered an abnormal result. Such individuals are considered to be infected with dengue virus and should consult a doctor for the appropriate treatment measures.

Disclaimer: All results must be clinically correlated with the patient’s complaints to make a complete and accurate diagnosis. This is information purely from the educational point of view and is in no way a substitute for medical advice by a qualified doctor.

Dengue Test की जांच का लैब टेस्ट करवाएं

Dengue IGG

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Dengue IGM

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Dengue IgM And IgG

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Dengue NS1 Antigen

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Dengue RNA PCR

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References

  1. Center for Disease Control and Prevention [internet], Atlanta (GA): US Department of Health and Human Services, Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
  2. Center for Disease Control and Prevention [internet], Atlanta (GA): US Department of Health and Human Services, Revised diagnostic testing for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue viruses in US Public Health Laboratories
  3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention [internet], Atlanta (GA): US Department of Health and Human Services, Dengue: Travel and Dengue Outbreaks
  4. Merck Manual Consumer Version [Internet]. Kenilworth (NJ): Merck & Co. Inc.; c2018. Dengue
  5. University of Rochester Medical Center [Internet]. Rochester (NY): University of Rochester Medical Center; Dengue Fever
  6. World Health Organization [Internet]. Geneva (SUI): World Health Organization; Dengue and severe dengue
  7. Center for Disease Control and Prevention [internet], Atlanta (GA): US Department of Health and Human Services, Testing for Dengue Virus
  8. UW Health [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority; Health Information: Dengue Fever