myUpchar प्लस+ के साथ पूरेे परिवार के हेल्थ खर्च पर भारी बचत

What is a Hepatitis B test?

A hepatitis B test is used to detect the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies produced as a response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or the DNA of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in body. It is mainly done as a screening test for HBV infection, detecting a previous exposure or guiding and monitoring treatment for Hepatitis B. The type of infection, ie acute or chronic, can also be determined with this test.

HBV can cause acute or chronic infection and can result in liver damage and inflammation.   

An acute infection is a short-term infection. Usually, in this type of infection, body’s immune system destroys the virus, and the symptoms subside within a few weeks. Chronic infection is a long-term infection that takes a longer time to subside. The virus is not easily destroyed in this case.  Another state known as the carrier state can also be seen. It is characterised by a persistent infection, but no liver inflammation is observed in this case. Thus, a carrier, with HBV infection will be in good health, but can infect healthy individuals.

  1. Why is a Hepatitis B test performed?
  2. How do you prepare for a Hepatitis B test?
  3. How is a Hepatitis B Test performed?
  4. What do Hepatitis B test results indicate?

Hepatitis test is suggested to individuals who present with the following signs and symptoms     :

People who are at a higher risk of acquiring this infection and need to be regularly screened for HBV include:

  • Homosexuals (individuals having sexual intercourse with the same sex)
  • Drug addicts
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons
  • Those in close contact with an HBV-infected person
  • Those who require immunosuppressive therapy
  • Those undergoing haemodialysis
  • Blood and tissue donors
  • Those infected with hepatitis C virus
  • Pregnant women
  • Infants born to HBV-infected mothers
  • Those who have travelled to an area with high HBV infection occurence

The risk of an acute infection to become chronic is largely dependent on the age of the infected person. Hence, extra care should be taken in patients aged <6 years. Further, 80-90% of infants can develop chronic infections during the first year of life; 30-50% of children infected before 6 years of age develop chronic infections. Less than 5% of adults who are infected with HBV will develop chronic infection, and 20-30% chronically infected will develop cirrhosis and liver cancer.

No special preparation is needed for this test.

To perform this test, your healthcare provider will first clean the site of blood collection, ie your arm with an antiseptic solution. A needle will be inserted into a vein in the arm to draw a blood sample. The collected sample will be then sent to the laboratory for further investigations.

HBsAg: The presence of HBsAg that is hepatitis virus antigen is representative of HBV infection. It can be seen at high levels in both acute and chronic infection.

Hepatitis B surface antibodies (anti-HBs): Anti-HBs signify recovery and immunity from HBV infection. It can also be seen in vaccinated patients.

Total hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc): They appear at the onset of infection in acute HBV and persist for life. Presence of anti-HBc indicates a previous or current infection without pinpointing the time of exposure.

IgM antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (IgM anti-HBc): It indicates acute infection. The time period of infection could be less than or equal to six months. The possible interpretations of an HBV test are shown in the table below:

 

Initial Tests

 

 

 

 

Hep B surface antigen (HBsAg)

Hep B surface antibodies (anti-HBs)

Hep B core antibody total (anti-HBc IgG+IgM)

Hep B core antibody (anti-HBc IgM)

Possible interpretation/stage of infection

Negative

Negative

Negative

Negative

No active or past infection, without immunity or

possibly in the incubation stage

Negative

Positive

Negative

Not performed

Immunity due to vaccination

Negative

Positive

Positive

Not performed

Infection resolved or

virus can reactivate

Positive

Negative

Positive or Negative

Positive

Acute infection with symptoms,

contagious, or

chronic infection

Negative

Negative

Positive

Positive

Acute infection is resolving

Positive

Negative

Positive

Negative

Active chronic infection

Positive

Negative

Positive

Negative

Chronic infection with low risk of liver damage

Disclaimer: All results must be clinically correlated with the patient’s complaints to make a complete and accurate diagnosis. The above information is provided from a purely educational perspective and is in no way a substitute for medical advice from a qualified doctor.  

Hepatitis B Test (HBeAb; Hepatitis B Antibody) की जांच का लैब टेस्ट करवाएं

Hepatitis B (Core) IgM Antibody

20% छूट + 10% कैशबैक

HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

20% छूट + 10% कैशबैक

HEPATITIS B CORE TOTAL ANTIBODY,SERUM

20% छूट + 10% कैशबैक

HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN (CARD TEST)

20% छूट + 10% कैशबैक

HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN, CONFIRMATION, SERUM

20% छूट + 10% कैशबैक
और पढ़ें ...

References

  1. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases [internet]: US Department of Health and Human Services; Hepatitis B
  2. Sarah Schillie, MD; Claudia Vellozzi, MD. Center for Disease Control and Prevention [internet], Atlanta (GA): US Department of Health and Human Services, Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
  3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention [internet], Atlanta (GA): US Department of Health and Human Services, Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Health Professionals
  4. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: US National Library of Medicine; Hepatitis B
  5. World Health Organization [Internet]. Geneva (SUI): World Health Organization; Hepatitis B