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What is chronic lymphocytic leukaemia?

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a type of cancer that affects lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells (WBCs) while they are still forming inside the bone marrow. It is the most frequent form of leukaemia observed in adults. There are two types of CLL:

  • One which takes more time to appear, as it grows slowly.
  • The other type, which is a more serious form, grows faster.

It is uncommon in India (1.7%-8.8%) as compared to the West (25%-30%).

The incidence of CLL is as uncommon as 4.7 per 100,000 males and females per year.

What are its main signs and symptoms?

In most cases, CLL does not show any symptoms for years. Symptoms appear much later as the cancer spreads, mainly affecting the lymph nodes, liver and spleen. Symptoms include:

  • Painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, stomach or groin
  • Tiredness
  • Pain below the ribs
  • Fever
  • Night Sweats
  • Frequent infections
  • Unexplained weight loss

What are its main causes?

Although the exact cause of CLL is not known, it is thought to arise due to a change (mutation) in the genes that control the growth and development of blood cells. This change causes the cells to produce abnormal, ineffective lymphocytes that multiply and accumulate in the blood and certain other organs. These cells also affect blood cell production.

Risk factors include:

  • Middle-aged or older men
  • Family history of CLL or cancer of the lymph nodes
  • Whites, Russian and Eastern European people of Jewish descent
  • Exposure to certain chemicals like herbicides and insecticides

How is it diagnosed and treated?

CLL can be diagnosed by the following methods:

  • Physical examination and history: To check overall health.
  • Complete blood count (CBC): To check the size and number of all blood cells.
  • Immunophenotyping or flow cytometry: To look for WBC antigens.
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH): To assess genetic information.

Five standard therapies for patients with CLL are:

  • Close monitoring of the patient’s condition in the early stages
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Surgery to remove spleen
  • Targeted therapy with monoclonal antibodies
  • Bone marrow transplant

Follow-up:

  • After detection, tests may be needed to monitor the progression of the disease.
  • Treatment may not completely cure the disease, and symptoms may develop after a period of remission.
  • Treatments may last for a few weeks or months, or for years in some.
  • Further management will depend on the effectiveness of the previous treatment.

Lifestyle modifications:

  • Quit smoking.
  • Reduce the risk of infection by maintaining good hygiene.
  • Dietary changes. Devise a meal plan with the help of a dietician.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Manage stress and fatigue. Prioritise tasks and allow others to help with daily chores.
  • Seek the support of family, friends as well as support groups.
  • Go for counselling sessions.
  1. Medicines for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Medicines for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

Medicines listed below are available for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.

Medicine NamePack SizePrice (Rs.)
DispredDispred 0.1% Eye Drop29.0
CelkeranCelkeran 2 Mg Tablet1190.0
ClokeranClokeran 2 Mg Tablet1469.0
LeukeranLeukeran Tablet382.0
EmsoloneEmsolone 10 Mg Tablet21.0
KidpredKidpred Syrup25.0
MethpredMethpred 125 Mg Injection250.0
OmnacortilOmnacortil 10 Mg Tablet Dt9.0
Omnacortil ForteOmnacortil Forte 15 Mg Oral Suspension44.0
Prednisolone Acetate (Alcon Lab)Prednisolone Acetate 1% Drop66.0
Prednisolone Acetate (Aller)Prednisolone Acetate 10 Mg Suspension66.0
PredonePredone 1% Eye Drop29.0
Sol U PredSol U Pred 1 Gm Injection1042.0
WysoloneWysolone 10 Mg Tablet Dt14.0
ActicortActicort 10 Mg Tablet9.0
AdredAdred 20 Mg Tablet27.0
Apred(Acron)Apred 5 Mg Tablet4.0
ApredApred Drops35.0
AquapredAquapred 1% Eye Drops40.0
DefsoneDefsone 30 Mg Tablet299.0
DelsoneDelsone 10 Mg Tablet9.0
ElpredElpred Forte 15 Mg Syrup75.0
EmosolinEmosolin 5 Mg Tablet9.0
GopredGopred 1% Eye Drops37.0
Immupress D30Immupress D30 Tablet180.0
Immupress D6Immupress D6 Tablet40.0
KazipredKazipred Eye Drops36.0
LancepredLancepred 40 Mg Tablet24.0
MednisolMednisol 1 Gm Injection1131.0
MonocortilMonocortil 10 Mg Tablet6.0
Mpa(Chn)Mpa 80 Mg Injection82.0
MpssMpss 1 Gm Injection942.0
NisoloneNisolone 10 Mg Tablet9.0
NoloneNolone 16 Mg Tablet90.0
NucortNucort 0.5 Mg Drop11.0
Pcort (Pharmtak)Pcort 10 Mg Tablet7.0
PcortPcort Eye Drops10.0
P D NP D N Drop17.0
PednisolPednisol 10 Mg Tablet7.0
P LoneP Lone 1% W/V Eye Drop16.0
Pred AcetatePred Acetate Drop66.0
PredcipPredcip 5 Mg Tablet5.0
PreddiPreddi 5 Mg Tablet3.0
Pred FortePred Forte 1% W/V Eye Drop35.0
PredicortPredicort 10 Mg Tablet9.0
PredlyPredly 1% Eye Drop26.0
PrednijPrednij 5 Mg Tablet4.0
Prednij FortePrednij Forte 10 Mg Tablet8.0
PredninPrednin 1% Eye Drops40.0
Prednin APrednin A 1% Eye Drops16.0
PrednisafePrednisafe 1% Eye Drops28.0
Prednisolone Forte (Allergen)Prednisolone Forte Drops98.0
PredniwaPredniwa 1% Eye Drops29.0
PrednolonePrednolone 5 Mg Tablet6.0
PredsPreds 1% Drops19.0
PredsolPredsol 10 Mg Eye Drops35.0
PrendicarePrendicare 16 Mg Tablet116.0
PresolonPresolon 1% Drop10.0
RaycortRaycort 1%W/V Eye Drops66.0
RenisolRenisol 1% Drops8.0
SancortSancort 10 Mg Tablet8.0
SanpredSanpred 1% Eye Drops32.0
SiopredSiopred 1% Drops35.0
SodipredSodipred 1000 Mg Injection880.0
SolonSolon 10 Mg Tablet66.0
SolumarkSolumark 1000 Mg Injection1271.0
XtrapredXtrapred 0.25% Drops17.0
ZenpredZenpred 1 Gm Injection895.0
AnesolinAnesolin 30 Mg Injection60.0
CerucleanCeruclean Drop29.0
Engatt PEngatt P Eye Drops62.0
M PredM Pred 4 Mg Tablet45.0
PrecortPrecort 5 Mg Tablet85.0
PredinsolnePredinsolne Drops93.0
Prednisolone OpthoPrednisolone Optho Suspension43.0
IkgdarIkgdar 100 Mg Injection7142.86
MaballMaball 100 Mg Injection5000.0
MabtasMabtas 10 Mg Infusion5139.28
Mabtas NMabtas N 100 Mg Injection7109.0
Mabtas RaMabtas Ra 500 Mg Injection37500.0
Mabtas TMabtas T 100 Mg Injection7142.86
RedituxReditux 100 Mg Injection9999.0
Reditux RaReditux Ra 500 Mg Infusion76182.9
RistovaRistova 100 Mg Injection7568.75
ToritzToritz 100 Mg Injection9466.25
CytomabCytomab 500 Mg Injection31250.0
LupiximabLupiximab 100 Mg Injection8500.0
RituxirelRituxirel 100 Mg Injection9945.0
BemustinBemustin 100 Mg Injection6303.85
BenditBendit 100 Mg Injection6950.0
BenzzBenzz 100 Mg Injection6582.85
BimodeBimode 100 Mg Injection6416.15
CytomustineCytomustine 100 Mg Injection6571.42
MaxtorinMaxtorin 100 Mg Injection7683.81
MustinMustin 100 Mg Injection19.9
PurplzPurplz 100 Mg Injection7102.03
ZumustinZumustin 100 Mg Injection5952.38
FludabineFludabine 50 Mg Injection10500.0
FludacelFludacel 50 Mg Injection6500.0
FludaphosFludaphos 50 Mg Injection5557.68
FludaraFludara 10 Mg Tablet35470.5
FludocyteFludocyte 50 Mg Injection9611.25
LymfudaLymfuda 10 Mg Tablet5552.94
IviglobIviglob 2.5 Gm Infusion9990.0
MeglobMeglob 2.5 Gm Infusion6345.0
GammavenGammaven 5000 Mg Infusion14900.0
GlobucelGlobucel 5% Infusion10000.0
CampathCampath 30 Mg Injection86.25
4 Quin Pd4 Quin Pd 0.5% W/V/1% W/V Eye Drop76.92
Apdrops PdApdrops Pd 0.5% W/V/1% W/V Eye Drop26.0
CombaceCombace 0.5%/1% Eye Drops12.91
Mo 4 PdMo 4 Pd Ear Drop90.0
MoxipredMoxipred Eye Drops14.57
Moxigram PMoxigram P Eye Drop13.65
Occumox POccumox P Eye Drop19.75
Aquapred OAquapred O 0.3%/1% Eye Drops45.91
ExopredExopred 0.3%/1% Eye Drop46.8
Ofelder PaOfelder Pa 0.3%/1% Drops18.17
Oflo POflo P 3 Mg/10 Mg Eye Drops11.18
Ofray POfray P 0.3%/1% Eye Drops49.0
OmepredOmepred 0.3%/1% Eye Drops12.9
OploneOplone 0.3%/1% Eye Drops42.2
PredfaxPredfax 0.3%/1% Eye Drops10.36
Preds OPreds O 0.3%/1% Eye Drops42.0
ZypredZypred 0.3%/1% Eye Drop15.0
OcepredOcepred Eye Drop13.36
Gatiquin PGatiquin P 0.3% W/V/1% W/V Eye Drop94.0
PredzyPredzy 3 Mg/10 Mg Eye Drops60.0
Gatsun PGatsun P 0.3%/1% Drops12.84
Siogat PSiogat P 0.3%/1% Eye Drops55.53
Zengat PZengat P Eye Drops13.1
Z PredZ Pred 0.3%/1% Eye Drops51.25
Gate PdGate Pd 3 Mg/10 Mg Eye Drops25.9
Gate P PGate P P 3 Mg/10 Mg Eye Drops28.35
Mlobe PdMlobe Pd Eye Drop90.0
OrecureOrecure Ear Drops59.7
P.ColP.Col Drops25.0
PerfocynPerfocyn Ear Drop13.03
Ossilex AcOssilex Ac Drops21.87

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