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What is Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura?

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a disorder of the blood characterised by reduced platelet count without a known clinical cause. The disorder affects the number of platelets and not their functions. In ITP, our body produces antibodies against the platelets; hence, it is an autoimmune disorder.

What are its main signs and symptoms?

Since platelets are needed for stopping bleeding, the symptoms of ITP are primarily related to excessive bleeding. The symptoms are mentioned below:

  • Tiny red spots under the skin due to bleeding of the small blood vessels (petechiae)
  • Easy bruising without any specific cause (purpura)
  • Nosebleed
  • Bleeding of the gums
  • Blood in vomit, stool, or urine
  • Bleeding in the head occurs by any head trauma, which can become life-threatening (Read more: Head injury treatment)

What are its main causes?

Although the cause of ITP is not known, the disease involves the following two processes, which result in lower platelet counts:

  • First – antibodies destroy the platelets
  • Second –  antibodies also destroy the platelet-producing cells in the bone marrow. The protein thrombopoietin (TPO) is essential for the production of platelets. However, the level of TPO does not rise in case of low platelet count.

How is it diagnosed and treated?

The doctor may perform a complete physical examination and relate it to the medical history. He/she may also order for a complete blood count (CBC) to check for platelet counts and urine test to check for any possible infection and assess bleeding time. Bone marrow aspiration is done to rule out the abnormalities in the bone marrow.

The aim of the treatment is to increase the number of platelets in the blood.

  • Corticosteroids are used to reduce the inflammation while immunoglobulin is used to increase the platelet count.
  • Splenectomy is performed to control the rate of platelet destruction.
  • Platelet transfusion is required in severe cases.
  • A medicine called Rituxan (rituximab) is used for chronic ITP.
  1. Medicines for Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)

Medicines for Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)

Medicines listed below are available for Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP). Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.

Medicine NamePack SizePrice (Rs.)
TricortTricort 10 Mg Injection47
WysoloneWysolone 10 Tablet DT14
KenacortKenacort 0.1% Oral Paste50
RhocloneRhoclone 150 Mcg Injection1458
Low DexLow Dex Eye/Ear Drops8
DexacortDexacort Eye Drop13
Dexacort (Klar Sheen)Dexacort (Klar Sheen) 0.1% Eye Drop14
4 Quin Dx4 Quin Dx Eye Drop13
SolodexSolodex 0.1% Eye/Ear Drops4
Apdrops DmApdrops Dm 0.5% W/V/1% W/V Eye Drop103
Lupidexa CLupidexa C Eye Drop7
Dexcin MDexcin M Eye Drop59
Ocugate DxOcugate Dx Eye Drop8
Mfc DMfc D Eye Drop84
Mflotas DxMflotas Dx 0.5%W/V/0.1%W/V Eye Drop78
Mo 4 DxMo 4 Dx Eye Drop64
Moxifax DxMoxifax Dx Eye Drop52
Moxitak DmMoxitak Dm Eye Drops16
MyticomMyticom Eye Drop72
Occumox DmOccumox Dm 0.5%/0.1% Eye Drop0
Mflotas DMflotas D Eye Drop0

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References

  1. MedlinePlus Medical: US National Library of Medicine; Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
  2. L.Kayal, S.Jayachandran, Khushboo Singh. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Contemp Clin Dent. 2014 Jul-Sep; 5(3): 410–414. PMID: 25191085
  3. Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) Causes, Symptoms and Treatment. The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, USA. [internet].
  4. Blood. How I treat idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). American Society of Hematology; Washington DC, USA. [internet].
  5. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Immune Thrombocytopenia
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