Breast Problems

Dr. Ayush PandeyMBBS,PG Diploma

November 28, 2018

March 06, 2020

Breast Problems
Breast Problems

What are breast problems?

Breast problems are a set of conditions affecting breasts excluding breast cancer and hence are generally benign. Breast problems can occur at any age. Some breast problems occur during puberty, others originate during pregnancy or due to lactation, while some may be due to ageing. Breast problems are commonly termed benign breast diseases.

What are its main signs and symptoms?

The characteristic signs and symptoms of breast problems are their variable nature and the various forms of the lesions. If you have a breast problem, you may display one or more of the following signs and symptoms:

  • Pain in the breast
  • Lumps in the breast which can be due to growth of fibroid or excess fat accumulation
  • Growth of cyst in the breast
  • Inversion of nipples
  • Discharge from the nipples
  • Cracked and sore nipples
  • Presence of extra nipples
  • Change in appearance of skin of breast

What are its main causes?

There can be a number of causes for breast problems. These include:

  • Abnormal breast development
  • Inflammation
  • Hormonal changes and imbalances
  • Infections causing abscess or sepsis in breast ducts during lactation
  • Milk stasis
  • Presence of foreign material like silicone or paraffin for breast augmentation
  • Trauma to the breast due to accident or surgery
  • Tuberculosis of the breast is a rare but possible cause for a lesion in the breast

How is it diagnosed and treated?

Any kind of change in the breast appearance or function needs immediate attention and proper diagnosis to rule out malignancy.

Self-examination of breasts is the best and simplest way to detect breast problems. If a lump is felt, it is of utmost importance that you go in for a check-up to rule out the possibility of cancer. Following are the diagnostic methods used:

  • Ultrasound
  • Mammography
  • Core needle biopsy
  • Tissue biopsy
  • Pathological investigation

The line of treatment is decided based on the reports of the diagnostic tests. Some of the treatment methods include:

  • Soothing cream for sore nipples
  • Proper lactation schedule and technique, if problems during lactation are the cause of the breast problem
  • Surgical removal of breast fibroid
  • Needle aspiration of the liquid from the cyst
  • Surgical removal of the cyst
  • Rarely, removal of breast (mastectomy would be advised if chances of malignancy are more)
  • If hormonal imbalance is the cause of the breast problem, hormonal pills may be prescribed to restore the balance



References

  1. Purushothaman Rangaswamy, Shaikh Afzal Rubby. Clinical study on fibroadenoma of the breast. Purushothaman R et al. Int Surg J. 2016 Nov;3(4):1916-1919; eISSN 2349-2902
  2. Sangma MB, Panda K, Dasiah S. A Clinico-Pathological Study on Benign Breast Diseases. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013 Mar;7(3):503-6. PMID: 23634406
  3. Kaur N, Agarwal N, Panwar P, Mishra K. Clinicopathologic profile of benign breast conditions in Indian women: prospective study based on aberrations of normal development and involution classification. World J Surg. 2012 Sep;36(9):2252-8. PMID: 22744217.
  4. Journal of cell science and therapy. Breast Microcalcifications: A Focus. OMICS International: ISSN: 2157-7013. [internet].
  5. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: US National Library of Medicine; Breast Diseases

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