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What is COPD?

COPD is a collective term for severe inflammatory lung diseases that mainly cause obstruction of the air-flow in the lungs. Worldwide, COPD is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 65 million people are suffering from a moderate-to-severe form of COPD globally. The prevalence of COPD reported in India is 2%-22% in males and 1.2%-19% in females.

What are its main signs and symptoms?

Initially, one may not identify COPD easily as the symptoms may overlap with other respiratory conditions. The usual symptoms include:

COPD includes three progressive lung conditions: chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and irreversible asthma. Individuals who develop chronic bronchitis present with symptoms like persistent cough and mucus secretion. In emphysema, the alveoli (small air sacs in the lungs) are affected and get destroyed due to various gaseous irritants, for example, cigarette smoke.

What are its main causes?

The most important risk factor and cause of COPD is smoking and exposure to biofuels or household smoke. Other risk factors include comorbidities such as heart disease, heartburn, depression or diabetes. Passive smoking and a rare genetic condition due to alpha-1-deficiency may have a role in COPD. Asthma can also exacerbate COPD.

How is it diagnosed and treated?

The following tests may be performed for diagnosis of COPD:

  • Lung function tests: To check the lung capacity.
  • Chest x-ray: To rule out other lung problems.
  • Arterial blood gas analysis.
  • Laboratory tests.

The Gold guidelines are usually used to make treatment choices for COPD patients. Treatments include:

  • Preventive measures:
    • Stop smoking and avoid exposure to smoke and other respiratory tract irritants.
  • Medications:
    • Bronchodilators.
    • Inhaled steroids.
    • Combination inhalers.
    • Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors.
    • Antibiotics.
  • Non-drug measures include:
    • Oxygen therapy.
    • Lung rehabilitation programs.
  • Surgery:
    • Lung volume reduction surgery.
    • Lung transplant.
    • Bullectomy.

It is better to prevent and stop the progression of the disease.

COPD is a persistent disease that is not curable, but with the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment, one can manage COPD to achieve a better quality of life.

(Read more: Lung infections treatment)

  1. Medicines for COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
  2. Doctors for COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
Dr. K. K. Handa

Dr. K. K. Handa

कान, नाक और गले सम्बन्धी विकारों का विज्ञान

Dr. Aru Chhabra Handa

Dr. Aru Chhabra Handa

कान, नाक और गले सम्बन्धी विकारों का विज्ञान

Dr. Yogesh Parmar

Dr. Yogesh Parmar

कान, नाक और गले सम्बन्धी विकारों का विज्ञान

Medicines for COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

Medicines listed below are available for COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). Please note that you should not take any medicines without doctor consultation. Taking any medicine without doctor's consultation can cause serious problems.

Medicine NamePack SizePrice (Rs.)
AzibactAzibact 100 Mg/5 Ml Redimix Suspension21
AtmAtm 100 Mg Tablet Xl20
AzibestAzibest 100 Mg Suspension23
FormonideFormonide 20 Mcg/0.5 Mg Respules38
AzilideAzilide 100 Mg Redimix22
ZithroxZithrox 100 Mg Suspension20
BudamateBudamate 400 Inhaler296
ForacortForacort 100 Rotacap107
DeriphyllinDeriphyllin Retard 150 Tablet18
LevolinLevolin 0.31 Mg Respules 2.5 Ml2
AzithralAzithral XL 200 Liquid 60ml152
AsthalinAsthalin 5 mg Respirator Solution8
Ritolide 250 Mg TabletRitolide 250 Mg Tablet168
FivasaFivasa 27 Mcg Nasal Spray192
DuolinDuolin 1.25mg/500mcg Respules 2.5ml0
EsifloEsiflo 100 Transcaps125
SerofloSeroflo 25 Mcg/125 Mcg Autohaler691
ZomycinZomycin 250 Mg Tablet26
ZybactZybact 250 Mg Tablet84
Airtec FbAirtec Fb 6 Mcg/100 Mcg Capsule109
Zycin(Cdl)Zycin 250 Mg Tablet54
ZycinZycin 250 Mg Capsule56

Do you or anyone in your family have this disease? Please do a survey and help others


  1. Parvaiz A. Koul. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Indian guidelines and the road ahead. Lung India. 2013 Jul-Sep; 30(3): 175–177. PMID: 24049249
  2. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; COPD
  3. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: US National Library of Medicine; COPD
  4. American lung association. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Chicago, Illinois, United States
  5. Center for Disease Control and Prevention [internet], Atlanta (GA): US Department of Health and Human Services; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
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