What is a Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 (ß2 GPI) Antibodies test? 

Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 (ß2 GPI) is a type of plasma protein that is present in high amounts in the bloodstream. It binds to phospholipids present on the outer surface of body cells and platelets and is thought to play some role in the prevention of blood coagulation.

An antibody is a unique protein that helps fight infections and pathogens. However, the anti-ß2 GPI antibodies are different, as they attack healthy cells. These antibodies are called autoantibodies - auto - self, antibodies.

This test is performed to check if your body is producing antibodies against the ß2 Glycoprotein1.

As they destroy the ß2 GPI, the presence of anti-ß2 GPI antibodies has been linked to faulty blood clotting and increased risk of clot formation in blood vessels. 

These antibodies are categorised as antiphospholipid antibodies. A doctor may often recommend the test along with other tests for antiphospholipid antibodies, such as lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. 

Although cardiolipin antibodies and ß2 GPI antibodies bind to the same target, the presence of either does not confirm the presence of the other. The ß2 GPI antibody test is not a commonly ordered test, it is used to diagnose certain specific conditions.

  1. Why is a Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 (ß2 GPI) Antibodies test performed?
  2. How do you prepare for a Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 (ß2 GPI) Antibodies test?
  3. How is a Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 (ß2 GPI) Antibodies test performed?
  4. Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 (ß2 GPI) Antibodies test results and normal range

The doctor may recommend a ß2 GPI antibodies test in the following scenarios:

  • Repeated incidents of clotting in arteries and veins. Clotting in small blood vessels - usually referred to as small vessel thrombosis.
  • The birth of a premature baby in more than one pregnancy, which could be due to: 
    • Placental insufficiency (placenta is unable to support the baby) or
    • Eclampsia or preeclampsia (high blood pressure, which may be accompanied with convulsions)
    • Repeated incidents of miscarriage occurring before the tenth week of pregnancy despite regular chromosomal features in parents of the baby.

Other than the above-mentioned conditions, a ß2 GPI antibodies test is usually performed along with the lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibody tests to diagnose any autoimmune disorder. The symptoms associated with autoimmune diseases include

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Tell your doctor if you are taking any medicine or supplements. This is because certain medicines and drugs affect the results of this test.

A blood sample is required for this test. A lab technician or nurse will use a sterilised needle to withdraw the required amount of blood from your arm. It might cause slight pain, but once the needle is removed, the pain will subside. 

After the test, you may experience slight bruising - it will fade away within a few days. If the bruising persists, please inform your doctor.

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Normal results: 

ß2 GPI antibody levels below 20 units per millilitre (U/mL) of the blood are considered to be normal. Normal results signify that you may not have an autoimmune disorder. However, further parameters and antibodies need to be checked to confirm the absence of any autoimmune disease. 

If you don’t have ß2 GPI antibodies but show positive results for other phospholipid antibodies, you may have antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Your doctor may check your symptoms to confirm APS

Abnormal results:

Higher than normal ß2 GPI antibodies levels are reported as abnormal. It may be due to antiphospholipid syndrome.

Abnormal results may also be associated with other autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus. 

Additionally, these antibodies are found to be temporarily increased in the blood in certain acute infections. In such a case, the results of a repeat test would be negative. Some forms of cancer and the presence of HIV infection can also be associated with a positive ß2 GPI antibodies test. 

Your doctor may repeat the test if your results are only weakly positive or negative, ie the values in the test result are not exceptionally high but above the normal range.

Disclaimer: All results must be clinically correlated with the patient’s complaints to make a complete and accurate diagnosis. The above information is provided from a purely educational point of view and is in no way a substitute for medical advice by a qualified doctor.


  1. Johns Hopkins Medicine [Internet]. The Johns Hopkins University, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, and Johns Hopkins Health System; Antiphospholipid Antibodies
  2. National Human Genome Research Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of Health. U.S.A. About Antiphospholipid Syndrome
  3. Lim W. Antiphospholipid syndrome. ASH Education Book. Vol. 2013 no.1 675-680. https://doi.org/10.1182/asheducation-2013.1.675
  4. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
  5. Jacob H. Rand , Lucia R. Wolgast. Dos and don'ts in diagnosing antiphospholipid syndrome. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program (2012) 2012 (1): 455-459. https://doi.org/10.1182/asheducation.V2012.1.455.3806865
  6. Matsuura E, et al. Pathophysiology of beta2-glycoprotein I in antiphospholipid syndrome. Lupus. 2010 Apr;19(4):379-84. PMID: 20353973
  7. University of Iowa. Department of Pathology. Laboratory Services Handbook [internet]. Beta-2 Glycoprotein I IgM
  8. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Blood Tests
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